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Psychology in Modules: Module 27

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Module 27 Page 1 Module 27 Thinking Cognition - all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating Concept - a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people Prototype - a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin). Problem Solving: Strategies and Obstacles Algorithm - a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier - but also more error-prone - use of heuristics. Heuristic - a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently but also more error-prone than algorithms. Ex. Chunking Insight - a sudden realization of a problems solution; contrasts with strategy-based solutions. Strikes suddenly with no prior sense of "getting warmer" to the solution. Confirmation Bias - a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence. We may eagerly seek out and favour evidence verifying our ideas than evidence refuting them. "Ordinary people evade facts, become inconsistent, or systematically defend themselves against the threat of new information relevant to the issue." Thus once people form a believe they prefer belief-confirming information. Mental Set - a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past. A perceptual set predisposes what we perceive, a mental set predisposes how we think. Forming Good and Bad Decisions and Judgments Intuition - an effortless immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning. Availability Heuristic - estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perh
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