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Psychology in Modules: Module 32

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Module 32 Page 1 Module 32 Basic Motivational Concepts and Hunger Motivation - a need or desire that energizes and directs behaviour. (4 Types) 1. Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology Instinct - a complex behaviour that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned. o Charles Darwin's theory composed of a list of over 5759 supposed human instincts collapsed. Rather than explaining human behaviours, he was simply naming them. Ex. Labeling a bright child with low grades an 'underachiever.' o The underlying assumption that genes predispose species-typical behaviour remains as strong. 2. Drives and Incentives Drive-Reduction Theory - the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. Homeostasis - a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of the body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level. Not only pushed by the need to reduce drives, but also pulled by Incentives - a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviour. 3. Optimum Arousal o Some motivated behaviours actually increase arousal o Human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal but to seek optimum levels of arousal. Having our biological needs satisfied we feel driven to experience stimulation and we hunger for information. o However, with too much stimulation comes stress, and we then look for a way to decrease arousal 4. A Hierarchy of Motives o Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active. o At the self-transcendence level people strive for meaning, purpose and communion that in beyond the self, that is transpersonal. Module 32 Page 2 o The pyramid is somewhat arbitrary, as the order of such needs is not universally fixed; as some people have starved themselves to make a political statement. Hunger The power of activated motives hijack our consciousness. Ex. When you are hungry, thirsty, fatigued, or sexually aroused little else may seem to matter. Glucose - the form of sugar that ci
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