PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Operant Conditioning, Operant Conditioning Chamber, Classical Conditioning
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What is operant conditioning?
• One thing to classically condition dog to salivate and another to operant contition a child to say
please or an elephent to walk on hind legs
• Classical and operant are both form os associative learning but their diff is
o Classical conditioning: forms association between stimuli (CA and the US)
• Also involves responsive habious (automatic responses to a stimulus like dog example)
o Operant conditioning: organism associate own actions with consequence
• Actions followed by reinforcers increase and those followed by punishment decrease
• Behaviours that operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishment
stimuli is called operant behaviour
Who was Skinner, and how is perant behavior reinforced and shaped
• Modern behaviorism
• Low of effect: reward behaviour tends to recur and punished behaviour less likelt yo recur
• Bahvioural control
• Shaping pigeon's natural walking and peaking behaviours, Skinner was able to teach them
• Had an operant chamber known as the Skinner box
• Box has a lever that animal press to release reward of food or water
• Reinforcement: any event that strenthens a preceding responce
• If wanting to condition a hungry rat, would do shaping: guiding rats actions towards desired
• Watch how animal normally behaves, then give rat little food when it approches lever, then make
it touch bar for food
• Shaping also helps understand what nonverbal organims perceive
• Can dog distinguis red or gree? Can babt hear the diff between lower and higher pitched tones?
• If we can shape them to respond to one thing and not the other, we know they can tell the
Types of Reinforcers
How do positive and negitive reinforcement differ, and what are the basic types of reinforcers?
• Positive reinforcement strengthens responding by presenting a pleasured stimulus after a
• Negitive reinforcement strengthens responce by reducing or removing smt negitive
• Positive: getting something
• Negitive: not a punishment
o Removes a punishment
o Provide relife
Add a desirable
Pet a dog that comes when you call it; pay
someone for work done.
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