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Chapter 11

PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Operant Conditioning, Operant Conditioning Chamber, Classical Conditioning


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Jublis
Chapter
11

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Operant Conditioning
What is operant conditioning?
One thing to classically condition dog to salivate and another to operant contition a child to say
please or an elephent to walk on hind legs
Classical and operant are both form os associative learning but their diff is
o Classical conditioning: forms association between stimuli (CA and the US)
Also involves responsive habious (automatic responses to a stimulus like dog example)
o Operant conditioning: organism associate own actions with consequence
Actions followed by reinforcers increase and those followed by punishment decrease
Behaviours that operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishment
stimuli is called operant behaviour
Skinner's Experiments
Who was Skinner, and how is perant behavior reinforced and shaped
Modern behaviorism
Low of effect: reward behaviour tends to recur and punished behaviour less likelt yo recur
Bahvioural control
Shaping pigeon's natural walking and peaking behaviours, Skinner was able to teach them
unpigeon-like behaviour
Had an operant chamber known as the Skinner box
Box has a lever that animal press to release reward of food or water
Reinforcement: any event that strenthens a preceding responce
Shaping Behavior
If wanting to condition a hungry rat, would do shaping: guiding rats actions towards desired
bahvior
Watch how animal normally behaves, then give rat little food when it approches lever, then make
it touch bar for food
Shaping also helps understand what nonverbal organims perceive
Can dog distinguis red or gree? Can babt hear the diff between lower and higher pitched tones?
If we can shape them to respond to one thing and not the other, we know they can tell the
difference
Types of Reinforcers
How do positive and negitive reinforcement differ, and what are the basic types of reinforcers?
Positive reinforcement strengthens responding by presenting a pleasured stimulus after a
responce
Negitive reinforcement strengthens responce by reducing or removing smt negitive
Positive: getting something
Negitive: not a punishment
o Removes a punishment
o Provide relife
Operant Conditioning
Term
Description
Examples
Positive reinforcement
Add a desirable
stimulus
Pet a dog that comes when you call it; pay
someone for work done.
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