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Chapter 47

PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 47: Psychodynamic Psychotherapy, Prescription Drug, The Techniques

Course Code
PSYC 1010

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Introduction to therapy and the psychological therapies:
Pinel and Dix pushed for gentler, more humane treatments and for constructing mental hospitals
Since 1950's effective drug therapies and community-based treatment programs has emptied
most of those hospitals
Treating psychological disorders:
o Treatment involving psychological techniques: consists of interactions between a trained
therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal
o Explore client's early relationships and encourages the client to adopt new ways of thinking
or coach the client in replacing old behaviors with new ones
Biomedical therapy
o Prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the person's physiology
o Medication and biological treatments
o An approach to psychotherapy that uses techniques from various forms of therapy
Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic therapies:
o Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives
and conflicts
o Freud's therapeutic technique used in treating psychological disorders
o Believed that patient's dreams, resistances, etc., had repressed feelings allowing the patient
to gain self-insight
The goals of psychoanalysis:
Freud believed that in therapy people could achieve healthier, less anxious living by releasing
energy they had previously devoted to id-ego-superego conflicts
Threatening things we repress that we do not want to know so we deny them
Help people bring these repressed feelings into conscious awareness
The techniques of psychoanalysis:
Power of childhood experiences to mold the adult
Unearth the past in hopes of loosening its bonds on the present
Free association
Mental blocks indicate resistance
o Blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
o Defending against sensitive material
o The analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors
and events in order to promote insight
o May also offer explanation of how resistance fits with other pieces of psychological puzzle,
including analysis of dream content
Relationship patterns surface In your interaction with therapist
o Patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (love or hatred
for parent)
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Psychodynamic therapy:
Psychodynamic therapists:
o Views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and seeks
to enhance self-insight
Try to help people understand their current symptoms by focusing on important relationships,
including childhood experiences and therapist-client relationship
Exploring past relationship troubles may help clients understand the origin of their current
Humanistic Therapies:
Humanistic perspective emphasizes people's innate potential for self-fulfillment
Humanistic therapies attempt to reduce the inner conflicts that interfere with natural
development and growth
Insight therapies
o Aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing a person's awareness of underlying
motives and defenses
Boost people's self-fulfillment by helping them grow in self-awareness and self-acceptance
Path to growth is taking immediate responsibility for one's feelings and actions, rather than
uncovering hidden determinants
Conscious thoughts are more important than unconscious
Present and future are more important than the past, exploring feelings as they occur
Client- centered therapy
o Rogers, active listening within an accepting, genuine and empathic environment to facilitate
client's growth
Nondirective therapy: therapist listens without judging or interpreting and refrains from directing
the client toward certain insights
Active listening
o Emphatic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies
o Acknowledge the expressed feelings and seeks clarification of what the person expresses
Unconditional positive regard
o Caring, accepting, non-judgemental attitude, Rogers believed would help people develop
self-awareness and self-acceptance
1. Paraphrase
a. Check understanding by summarizing the person's words out loud, in your own words
2. Invite clarification
a. Can encourage the person to say more
3. Reflect feelings
a. Might mirror what you're sensing from the person's body language and intensity
Behavior Therapies:
Therapy that applies learning principles to the eliminated of unwanted behaviors
Assume the problem behaviors are the problems
Classical conditioning techniques:
Pavlov shows we learn various behaviors and emotions through classical conditioning
Mowrer developed successful conditioning to recondition a solution
Unlearn fear responses
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