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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 psyc.docx

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PSYC 1010
Jennifer Steeves

Chapter 12: Theory, Research and Assessment Ex: astronauts, interview. Based on personality. Defining Personality: Consistency & Distinctiveness Distinctiveness- central to the concept of personality • Personality explain why people don’t act the same= varied reaction due to distinctive set of personality traits, although some traits in people might be the same. Personality explains: 1) Stability in a person’s behaviour over time and across situations (consistency) 2) Behavioural differences among people reacting to the same situation (distinctiveness) Personality: refers to an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioural traits. Personality Traits: Dispositions and dimensions Personality trait: is a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations. EX: honest, dependable, moody, friendly. **fundamental traits determine others Raymond Cattell statistical procedure of factor analysis shortened Gordon Allport’s list to 16 dimensions of personality. Factor analysis: correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables. *correlate highly= single factor influences them Five- Factor Model of Personality Traits Robert McCrae and Paul Costa- personality traits derived from “Big Five” 1. Extraversion: (Positivity emotionality), tend to be happier-outgoing, sociable, upbeat=extraverts. Positive outlook, motivated. • Correlated with Dating variety of people 2. Neuroticism: Overreact in response to stress, anxious, hostile, self-conscious, emotional instability and impulsiveness. *negative 3. Openness to experience: Curiosity, imaginativeness, flexibility. Tolerant of ambiguity & less need for closure, less prejudice, determines political attitudes. • Corrlated with playing musical instrument 4. Agreeableness: sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, straight forward. Associaed with conflict resolution, empathy and helping behaviour. • Correlates with honesty 5. Conscientiousness: (constraint) Disciplined, punctual, organized. Associated with self- discipline. • Correlates with low alcoholism, high paying jobs. Honesty, good grades • Live longer then neuroticism Psychodynamic Perspectives Psychodynamic theories include all of the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, which focus on unconscious mental forces. Freud’s psychoanalytic Theory • Born in 1856, Czech Republic. Middle class Jewish home in Vienna Austria. • Victorian era- sexual repression • Initially a medical doctor, then neurology, psychiatric cases= psychoanalysis on patients. • Trained with Ernst Bucke • Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation and psychological disorders by focusing on ealy childhood experiences, unconscious motives and conflicts and on methods people use to cope with their sexual aggressive urges. Contemporaries were uncomfortable with his theory: 1. Peoples behaviour are governed by unconscious factors= individuals are not masters of their own minds 2. Shaped by childhood experiences= people are not masters of their own destinies 3. How people cope with sexual urges= offended those who held conservative, Victorian values. Structure of Personality Id: primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle. • Reservoir of psychic energy= houses raw biological urges ( Eat, sleep, etc). Operates according to pleasure principle: demands immediate gratification of its urges. • Engages in primary-process thinking; primitive, illogical, irrational, fantasy oriented. Ego: decision making componenet of personality that operates according to the reality principle. • Mediates between the id and external social world (norms & expectations) • Reality Principle: seeks delay gratification of id’s urges until appropriate outlets and situation can be found. • Engages in secondary-process thinking; rational, realistic, problem solving. • Avoids negative consequences (punishment parents), also attempts to achieve long-range goals, concerns itself with practical realities. Superego: moral component of personality that incorporates social standards, about what represents right and wrong • Emerges from ego around 3-5 years old Levels of Awareness- 3 levels Conscious: consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time. Preconscious: contains material just beneath the furface of awareness that can be easily retrieved (middle name, what you had for supper last night) Unconscious: contains thoughts, memories, desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that exert great influence on behaviour. (Trauma from childhood, hidden feelings toward a parent, sexual desires) **Iceberg Conflict and the Tyranny of Sex and Aggression • People’s lives dominated by conflict EX: Alarm rings you shut it off, ID (operating according to pleasure principle) urges you to go back to bed. EGO( operating according to reality principle) points out you really must go to class. ID assures you, you will get the A grade you want and suggests going back to bed. SUPEREGO tries to make you feel guilty, how much tuition costs. Emphasis on Sex and Aggression? • Subject to more complex ambiguous social controls than other basic motives. Source of much confusion. • These can’t be satisfied as easily, social norms dictate that they be routinely frustrated. Anxiety and Defence Mechanisms • Conflicts often played out entirely in unconscious= can produce anxiety. ( Ego worrying about ID & Superego) Defence mechanisms: Largely unconscious reaction that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt. (mental manoeuvres that work through self-deception. Repression Keeping distressing thoughts and EX: Traumatized soldier has no feelings buried in the unconscious recollection of a close brush with death Projection Attributing one’s own thoughts, feelings EX: Woman dislikes boss, thinks or motives to another.(guilt) she likes her boos but boss dislikes her. Displacement Diverting emotional feelings (usually EX: Hard time at work, come home anger) from their original source to a and take it out on husband, or substitute target others. Reaction formation Behaving in a way that is exactly the EX: males who ridicule opposite of one’s true feelings (guilt of homosexuals are defending their sexual desires) own homosexual impulses. Regression A reversion to immature patterns of EX: Adult has temper tantrum when behaviour he doesn’t get his way. Rationalization Creating false but plausible excuses to EX: Student watched TV instead of justify unacceptable behaviour. studying. “+ study wouldn’t do any good” Identification Bolstering self-esteem by forming an EX: Insecure young man joins a imaginary or real alliance with some fraternity to boost his self- esteem, person or group. country club. Sublimation Occurs when unconscious, EX: longing for intimacy channelled unacceptable impulses are channelled into artwork. Aggression into social acceptable, perhaps even rechanneled through boxing/football. admirable behaviour (DaVinci- mother) Development: Psychosexual Stage “the chid is father to the man”- personality made by age 5. Psychosexual stages: are developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality. **sexual= urges for physical pleasure Fixation: failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected. Effects personality 1. Oral stage: (0-1): Mouth(sucking, biting). Key task: Weaning fro breast to bottle. Fixation during this stage can form the basis of obsessive eating or smoking later on in life. 2. Anal Stage: (2-3): Anus(expelling or retaining feces). Key task: toilet training. Anxiety about sexual activities later on in life. 3. Phallic Stage: (4-5): Genitals( masterbating) Oedipal complex emerges. Little boys like their mom, Little girls like their dad, develop “penis envy” blame mom so their anatomical “deficiency” Oepidipal complex: children manifest erotically tinged desires for their opposite sex parent, accompanied by feelings of hostility toward same sex parent. • Tragic myth from ancient Greece-Oedipus killed father married mother. Girls-electra complex 4. Latency:(6-12): None(sexually represented. Expand social contracts. 5. Genital: (puberty+): Genitals(being sexually intimate). Establishing intimate relationships Jung’s Analytical Psychology • Wrote to Freud in 1906- first meeting talked for 13 hours, later stopped talkin in 1913=theoretical disagreements. • Analytical Psychology to differentiate from Freud’s theory. • Focused on unconscious as well- said it has 2 layers. Personal unconscious houses material that is not within one’s conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten. Deeper layer= Collective unconscious: storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people’s ancestral past. Shares with the entire human race. Archetypes= ancestral memories= not memories of personal experiences, instead emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning. • Dreams contain important messages from the unconscious. First to describe- Introverts: tend to be preoccupied with the internal world of their own thoughts, feelings and experiences.(contemplative, aloof) Extraverts: tend to be interested in the external world of people and things.(outgoing, talkative, friendly) Adler’s Individual Psychology • Almost died from rickets and pneumonia • Practised ophthalmology and general medicine • Member of Freud’s in
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