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Social Behaviour.docx

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PSYC 1010
Gerry Goldberg

Chapter 16 Social Behaviour 04/10/2014 Social Psychology: the branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals thoughts, feelings, and behaviours are influenced by others Person perception: the process of forming impressions of others Social schemas: are organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and people Stereotypes: widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group.. save energy by simplifying our social world gender serotypes tend to assume that women are emotional, submissive, illogical, and passive, while men are unemotional dominant, logical and aggressive age stereotypes: elderly people are slow, feeble, rigid, forgetful and asexual ethnic stereotypes: Germans are methodical, Jews are mercenary Occupational stereotypes: lawyers are manipulative, accountants are conforming, artists are moody Illusory correlation: occurs when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association between social traits than they have actually seen -humans tendency to automatically categorize others? -evolutionary theorists attribute this behaviour to our distant ancestors’need to quickly separate friend from foe -assert that humans are programmed by evolution to immediately classify people as members ingroup- a group that one belongs to and identifies with outgroup- a group that one does not belong to or identify with Attributions: inferences that people draw about the causes of events others’behaviour, and their own behaviour -people tend to locate the cause of behaviour either within a person, attributing it to personal factors, or outside a person, attributing it to environment factors Internal attributions: ascribe the causes of behaviour to personal dispositions, traits, abilities and feelings External attributions ascribe the causes of behaviour to situational demands and environmental constraints -if a friends business fails, might attribute it to his or her lack of business acumen (an internal, personal factor) or to negative trends in the nation’s economic climate (an external, situational explanation) fundamental attribution error: which refers to observer bias in a favor of internal attributions in explaining others’behaviour actors favor external attribution for their behaviour, whereas observers are more likely to explain the same behaviour with internal attribution Defensive attribution: a tendency to blame victims for their misfortune, so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way -defensive attributions can lead unwarranted derogation of victims of misfortune Interpersonal attraction: refers to positive feelings toward another Matching hypothesis: proposes that males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners -married couples tend to be very similar in level of physical attractiveness Passionate love: is a complete absorption In another that includes tender sexual feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion Companionate love: warm, trusting, tolerant affection for one another whose life is deeply intertwined with one’s own Intimacy: refers to warmth, closeness and sharing in a relationship Commitment: is an intent to maintain a relationship in spite of the difficulties as costs that may rise -romantic love is an attachment process -peoples intimate relationships is adulthood follow the same form as their attachments in infancy -people fall on two continuous dimensions Attachment anxiety: how much people worry that their partners will not be available when needed Attachment avoidance: reflects the degree to which people feel uncomfortable with closeness and intimacy and therefore tend to maintain emotional distance from their partners Attitudes: positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought Cognitive component of an attitude is made up of the beliefs that people hold about the object of an attitude Affective component of an attitude consists of the emotional feelings stimulated
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