Textbook Notes (363,472)
Canada (158,372)
York University (12,359)
Psychology (3,543)
PSYC 1010 (1,075)

Psychology unit 3

73 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
PSYC 1010
Jennifer Steele

Psychology Notes Unit 3Chapter 8 Language and ThoughtLanguage Turning Thoughts into WordsWhat is language consists of symbols convey meanings rules for combining symbolsused to generate variety of messagescritical propertieslanguage is symbolicuse soundswritten words to represent objects actions events ideassymbols allow referral to objects in another place events in another time symbols flexible in variety of somewhat different objects may be called by the same namevarious lamps still called lamps language is semantic meaningful symbols used in languagearbitraryno built in relationship exists between the look sound of words and the objects they stand forEnglishpen Spanishpluma French styloall have shared meanings language is generative limited number of symbols can be combined in various ways to generate endless messageseveryday create sentences you never spoke before language is structured although language is generative sentences must be structured in a limited number of ways certain rules govern the arrangement of words into phrases and sentences some acceptable others not The Structure of LanguagePhonemessmallest speech units in a language that can be distinguished perceptually despite there being 100000s of words humans capable of understanding only 100 basic soundslanguages usually only use 2080 English language40 phonemes letter a pronounced differentlyfather had call take some phonemes represented by combination of lettersch and th Morphemes and Semanticsmorphemessmallest units of meaning in a languageEnglish50 000 morphemesmost words ex fire gauge friend consist of only 1 morpheme others consist of combinations unfriendly3 morphemesprefix un friend and suffix ly semanticsarea of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinationswords meaning consist of denotation dictionary definitionconnotationemotional overtones and secondary implications Syntaxpeople dont combine words randomlysyntaxsystem of rules specify how words can be arranged into sentencessimple rulesentence must have subject and a verbthe sound annoyed mesentence but the sound is not a sentence because no verbrules of syntax underlie all language use childrens acquisition of syntax is a mystery Milestones in Language Development Moving Toward Producing Words infants can distinguish phonemes from all world languages but adults cannot readily discriminate phonemes that are not use in their native language this ability declines from age 4 months to 12 months exact mechanism not understood but infants learn language structure before they can speak by 8 months infants recognize and store common word form Jane werker argues infants well prepared to learn language and that babies have perceptual biases that facilitate and guide acquisition of phonology two month baby show tendency to selectively attend more to speech sounds than to complex nonspeech sounds perceptual biases that facilitate language acquisition may be derived from listening to speech in utero babies growing up in bilingual homes learn 2 languagesjust as well equipped to learn 2 languages as we are 1 argues for optimal periods for different subsystems involved in language acquisition not absolute while young infants can discriminate phonemes not in language context this disappears without exposure as develop through first year they become tuned to their native language first 6 months babies vocalization dominated by crying laughter cooing then they start to babbleproduce various sounds corresponding to phonemesthen many repetitive consonant vowel combinations lalalalababbling becomes more complexand increasingly resemble language spoken by parents and others in environment last until 18 monthsbabbling considered to be milestone in language acquisition disagreement about origins 1 babbling motor achievement in which babbling reflects brains maturation in controlling motor operations to produce speech practicing how to talk2key linguistic achievementallow infant to discover and produce patterned structure of natural languageallows infant to acquire basics of language Using Words first year critical in childs acquisition 1013 months children utter sounds similar to words then vocab grows for next few months say between 350 words by 18 months receptive vocabproductive vocabunderstand more words than they can say themselves early words refer to objects and social actions acquire nouns before verbs because nouns easier to encode then verbs generalization may not apply to all languages vocab spurt around 1824 months grade 110 000 wordsgrade 540 000 words fast mappingprocess by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only one exposure vocab spurt attributable to childrens improved articulation skills improved understanding of syntax underlying cognitive development or comboefforts to make words not flawless over extensionwhen child incorrectly uses word to describe wider set of objectsactions than it is meant to child might use word ball to describe anything roundunder extensionwhen child incorrectly uses word to describe narrower set of objectsactions than it is meant to use word doll to only describe their favourite doll Combining Words early sentences characterized as telegraphic bc they resemble telegramstelegraphic speechmainly content words articles prepositions other less critical words might say give doll instead of give me the doll not unique to English but not cross culturally universal at end of third year most children can express complex ideas pluralpast tenseover regularizationswhen grammatical rules incorrectly generalized to irregular cases where they do not apply children say the girl goed homecrosscultural research suggest this occurs in all languages shows children working actively to understand rules of languages Refining Language Skillscontinue to refine language throughout school begin to appreciate ambiguities in languagecan recognize two possible meanings in sentences visiting relatives can be bothersomeshows theyre developing metalinguistic awarenessability to reflect on use of languageas it grows children play with languagepuns and jokes and also metaphors between 68 children appreciate irony and sarcasm ironyconveying an implied meaning that is the opposite of statements literal meaning sarcasmvariation on irony there is caustic element directed at a particular person Learning More Than One Language Bilingualismacquisition of two languages use diff speech sounds vocab and grammatical rules assumed that bilingualism hampers language development and has negative impact on youngsters educationalDoes learning two languages in childhood slow Down Language Development
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1010

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.