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psychology unit 4

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York University
PSYC 1010
Jennifer Steele

Psychology Unit 4 TestChapter 13 Stress Coping and HealthBiopsychosocial model physical illness caused by combo of bio psycho and sociocultural factorsHealth psychology how psychosocial factors relate to health and causation prevention and treatment of illnessThe Nature of Stress o Stresscircumstances that threaten well being o Stress as an Everyday EventCan include natural disasters to even small events such as misplacing cell phone shopping for gifts etcMinor stress doesnt necessarily produce minor effectsRoutine hassles can have harmful effects on mental and physical healthPossible because of cumulative nature of stress o Appraisal Stress Lies in the Eye of the BeholderStress depends on what a person notices and how they choose to interpret themTwo different types of appraisalsPrimary Appraisal o Initial evaluation of whether event is irrelevant to you relevant but not threatening stressfulSecondary Appraisal o More likely to make secondary appraisal if you find event to be stressful o Source of coping resources Ex primarywhether you saw exam as stressful secondaryhow stressful is it depending on how ready you aresome people more prone to feeling stressedanxious people report more stressMajor Types of Stress o Acute stressors threatening events that have short durationDealing with exam o Chronic Stressors long duration no apparent time limitFinancial strains debt o FrustrationOccurs in any situation where goal is thwartedMost are brief and insignificantCan be sources of significant stressFailures and losses o ConflictWhen twomore incompatible motivations behavioural impulses competeCome in three basic typesApproachapproach conflict choice made bw two attractive goals least stressfulAvoidanceAvoidance conflict choice made between two unattractive goals highly stressfulApproachavoidance conflict choice on a single goal but has good and bad aspects o Produce vacillationgo back and forth o ChangeAny noticeable alterations in living circumstances require adjustmentStress makes people vulnerable to illnessPositive events can produce stress buying big home because of changeSocial readjustment scale measure life changes as form of stressDeath of a spouse highestIt may not be accurate o PressureInvolves expectationsdemands that one behave in certain wayUnder pressure to finish work Pressures to conform to others expectations commonResponding to Stress o Emotional ResponsesEmotions Commonly ElicitedStrong links bw specific cognitive reactions to stress o Selfblame leads to guilt helplessness to sadness Some emotions more likely than others o Common responses to stress areAnnoyance anger rageApprehension anxiety fearDejection sadness griefPeople also experience positive emotions in bad circumstances o People felt positive emotions knowing their family was safe after 911Positive emotions dont vanish in times of high stressBroaden and build theory of positive emotions o Positive emotions alter mindsets broaden attention increase creativity o Positive emotions undo lingering effects of negative emotions o Also promote social interactionsAssociation bw positive emotions and lower levels of stress hormonesassociated with enhanced immune responseEffects of Emotional ArousalHigh emotional arousal can interfere with attention and memoryInverted U hypothesis o Task performance improve with increased emotional arousal until peak then begins to deteriorateo Peak called optimal level of arousal o Depends on complexity of task o As task complexity increases optimal level of arousal decreases o Physiological ResponsesFight or Flight ResponseReaction to threat autonomic nervous system mobilizes organismANS controls blood vessels smooth muscles and glandsFight or flight mediated by sympathetic divisionAdaptive response but less adaptive for human functioningWe cant handle stress through fight or flightFemales more tend and befriendThe General Adaptation SyndromeStress reactions nonspecific dont vary according to specific type of stressGeneral adaptionmodel of stress response three stages o Alarm organism recognizes threaten physiological arousal fight or flight o Resistance due to prolonged stress physical changes stabilize coping effortso Exhaustion bodys coping resources limited can be depleted damage varying organ systemsdisease of adaptationBrainBody Pathway
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