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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 - Intelligence and Testing.docx

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PSYC 1010
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Psychological Testing  Psychological Test: a standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behaviour o Used to measure individual differences among people o The response to a psychological test represent a sample of your behaviour  Limitation: scores your performance on a particular day only (could be your bad day) Types of Tests 1. Personality Tests: measure various aspects of personality o Measures personality traits such as motives, values, interests, attitudes... o aka. personality scales because do not have right or wrong answers 2. Mental Ability Tests  intelligence tests, aptitude tests, achievement tests o most common type of psychological tests o 3 categories: 1. Intelligence tests: assess general mental ability (intellectual potential) • Assume that people have certain intelligence which limit potential 2. Aptitude tests – assess specific types of mental abilities (potential) • Ex: special, mechanical abilities 3. Achievement tests – assess previous learning and knowledge of specific material Test Construction For any psychological test (including intelligence tests), 3 criteria must be met: 1. Standardization – uniform procedures used in (1) administering original test questions a large group of people and (2) scoring a test.  Target 1: Produce questions that can distinguish among people (high intelligence vs. low intelligence) o The questions which do not discriminate people are useless, and thus thrown out  Target 2: Provide a set of norms by which to judge what individual scores mean o Test norms indicate where a score on a test ranks relative to other scores (i.e., where your score falls in the normal distribution) o Percentile score ionization dictates the percentage of people who score at or below the score one has obtained o Standardization group: the large sample of people that the norms are based on 2. Reliability – measurement consistency in scores of a test  Consistency in measurement is crucial to accuracy in measurement  Methods of assessing reliability o Test-retest reliability – the same people are tested on the same test on two different occasions o Test-retest with alternate forms – exact same test with two different sets of questions • Advantage: people won’t remember the questions • Potential problem: assuming version a and version b have equal difficulty o Split-test reliability: looking at reliability within the test itself • Randomize the items • Divide the test into halves • Ideally, there will be the same score for both sections of the test  ideally the scores of reliability estimates will be the same (high positive correlation) o a correlation coefficient greater than 0.8 is good o Lack of reliability can be caused by fatigue, practice, and mood of participants 3. Validity – ability of a test to measure what it is designed to measure  Methods of assessing validity o Content-related validity: the degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it is supposed to cover • whether the test looks like it is measuring what is intended to • evaluated with logic more than statistics • not a good measure according to Dr. Jubis o Criterion-related validity (figure 9.4) • estimated by correlating subjects’ scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait. • if test scores correlate with an independent criteria, then the test has criterion validity • useful independent criteria: a. can the test scores predict how the subjects behave in a real life social setting? b. how well do scores of the same people compare on two different test? o Construct validity: the extent to which there is evidence that the test is measuring a specific hypothetical construct in question • Hypothetical constructs: abstract personal qualities that are assumed to exist • has 2 components a. Does my test really measure anxiety (note: anxiety is the construct)? b. Is there any evidence that anxiety really exists? • Evaluation (figure 9.5) a. examine the correlations between the test and various measures related to the trait in question b. overall pattern of correlations provides a convincing or unconvincing evidence of a test’s construct validity c. if construct validity exists, all the hypotheses of many studies are upheld as we go through the test results History of Intelligence Tests • 1885 – Galton devise the first intelligence test o Believed: “Intelligence was reflected by superior sensory acuity and physical attributes”  Claimed: bright people must exhibit sensory acuity  Sensory acuity was defined by sensitivity high-pitch sounds, colour perception, and reaction time  Research denied this correlation o Sought to show that intelligence is inherited  Influenced by Charles Darwin’s (Galton’s half-cousin) theory o Known for inventing correlation and percentile test scores • 1905 – Binet launched modern intelligence testing o Thought mental activities (reasoning, imagining, memory) are better indicators of intelligence o Used items involving basic abstract thinking on his test o Devise the first useful intelligence test, meant to measure a child’s mental age  Devised to distinguish sub-normal kids for special training • 1916 – Terman revised the Binet scale o Introduced the intelligence quotient (IQ) MentalAge  IntelligenceQuotient(I.Q.)= Chronological Age ×100  Chronological age: actual age  Mental age: performance on a test expressed as the age • The age at which a typical child displays a level of mental ability (test performance) equal to that of the test taker • Example: o Assumption: my test score = average score of 15 year old subjects o Interpretation: my mental age is also 15 years  If MA=CA, intelligence is average  MA>CA, intelligence is above average  MA
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