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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Human Development.docx

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PSYC 1010
Jennifer Steeves

Human Development • Development – the sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progress from conception to death  An orderly Cumulative process – Things build upon each other 2 Themes: • Transition – Look at how people evolve through transitions over time • Continuity – Try to understand continuity with the past Prenatal Development Stages • Germinal Stage – a zygote becomes a mass of cells that implants in the uterine wall and the placenta begins to form • Embryonic Stage – most vital organisms and bodily systems begin to form, making it a period of great vulnerability • Fetal Stage – organs continue to grow and gradually begin to function  As the fetus reaches the age of viability around 22-26 weeks Environmental Factors: • Maternal drug use – May have a variety of negative effects on prenatal development • Maternal illness – Can interfere with prenatal development  Genital herpes and AIDS can be passed to newborns at birth • Maternal malnutrition – increases newborns’ risk for birth complications and neurological deficits • Emotional state of the mother and Noisy Environments are also factors Childhood Motor Development • Head-to-foot direction (cephalocaudal trend)  Motor control moves from the mouth outward • Centre-outward direction (proximodal trend) • Sudden burst of growth accompanied by restlessness and irritability • Attributed mostly to maturation – but environment plays a role; not only genetics • Developmental norms and benchmarks • Individuals vary and so do cultures – Environmental factors • Great similarity in sequence and timing of motor development Temperament • Refers to characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity • Considerable variation • Thomas and Chess found that temperament remains fairly stable as children grow up • Longitudinal studies – Fels Institute followed individuals from birth-death • Cross-Sectional Studies – Look at differing ages at the same point in time • 3 Styles of Temperament: useful method of analyzing children  40% easy children  15% slow-to-warm-up  10% difficult children  35% Mixture of the three • Temperament at 3 months is a fair predictor at age 10 years  Does not mean that it is defining – there is a probability  Temperament is not destined – Parent-Child interaction can help Emotional Development - Attachment • Emerges out of complex interplay between infant and caregiver – cuteness of child is necessary • Harry Harlow – Study of infant monkeys  reinforcement is not the key to attachment • John Bowlby – Showed that attachment has a biological and evolutionary basis • Not instantaneous – in stages • Separation anxiety starts at about 6-8 months and peaks at 14-18 months Four Categories of Infant-Mother Attachment • Secure - • Anxious-Ambivalent - • Avoidant – Didn’t seem to care whether a stranger/parent came into the room • Disorganized-Disoriented – Confused and no expectations or pattern Effects of Secure Attachment • Studies of maternally deprived animals – development was lower without maternal • Observations of institutionalized babies Secure Attachment Associated with • Resilient, competent toddlers with high self-esteem • Display more persistence, curiosity, self-reliance, and leadership – better peer relationships • More advances cognitive development • Cannot assume Causality – could be other factors involved and/or complicated relationships Bonding • At birth skin-to-skin contact – “magic moment” • Daycare heated debate – Do they develop and thrive as much as kids at home  Research seems to show that there is no cognitive benefit of either  Develop more social skills in daycares than at home  Independence training might be more frequent at home Culture and Attachment • Emergence of separation anxiety seems universal • Rates of Secure vs. Anxious-Ambivalent vs. Avoidant attachments vary by culture  Germany – More avoidant types; suggests because independence training is stronger  Japan – More Anxious-Ambivalent types; less independence training  Not just genetics • Attributed to variations in child-rearing practices Evolutionary Perspectives • Bowlby assumed that attachment…:  Is a product of natural selection  Is biologically programmed  Has survival value Personality Development Erikson’s Stage Theory • Assumes that individuals progress through stages in a particular order – closely related to age • Evolve through 8 stages – each based upon a psychological crisis  Key is how these crises are dealt with  New stages bring major changes in characteristic behaviour  First 4 stages are Childhood stages Cognitive Development • Embryological Parallelism – The embryo evolves and develops in a way similar to the way humans developed throughout evolution  Does Ontogeny recapitulate phylogeny? – Jean Piaget Piaget’s Stage Theory • Children evolve through 4 stages of cognitive development • Looked at children’s reasoning underlying children’s wrong answers and how they used their intelligence • Sensorimotor Period – Coordination of sensory input with motor actions, gradual appearance of Symbolic Thought – Object Permanence • The Preoperational Period – Improved use of mental images, conservation is not mastered  Centration, irreversibility, egocentrism, and animism • The Concrete Operational Period – The ability to perform operations  i.e. internal transformations, manipulations, and reorganizations of mental structures  Limited to images of tangible object and actual events  Masters reversibility and decentration, decline of egocentrism, and gradual mastery of conservation.  Can handle hierarchical classification. • The Formal Operational Period – Logical thinking, abstract concepts, systematic problem solving Jean Piaget • Founded field of cognitive development • Established a new view of children as active agents constructing their own worlds • Demonstrated new ways of understanding cognitive development; BUT:  Underestimated pace of children’s cognitive development  Ignored individual differences and influence of culture  While sequence seems invariant, the timetable varies from culture-culture Neo-Piagetian Theories • M-Capacity and Staircase Model – If working memory theory is true, then there are probably small steps going between each stage of Piaget’s model Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory • Shaped by social interaction, language development, and cultural factors • Importance of social interaction – what the parent can do in order t
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