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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 - Motivation & Emotion.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Jennifer Steeves

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Motivation and Emotion Emotion Theories of Emotion James-Lange Theory • Theory – One first experiences a visceral arousal and then one experiences a conscious emotion  Conscious experience of emotion results from one’s perception of autonomic arousal • Emotions occur as a result of different patterns of autonomic activation Cannon-Bard Theory • Theory – Emotions originate in a subcortical structure in the brain  They thought it was the thalamus • Simultaneously sends signals to both the cortex and the autonomic nervous system  I.e. Autonomic arousal & conscious fear would occur at the same time • Different emotions are accompanied by nearly identical patterns of autonomic arousal  (e.g. fear, joy, love, anger) Reasoning • It doesn’t make sense that there is a particular biological/physiological state for every single emotion • How can there be sufficient differences between physiological states for very similar emotions? Canon • Did a lot of research proving the James-Lange Theory  Still said that it was incorrect • Founded the idea of the Flight-or-Flight response  When someone was in a state of fear they have high levels of epinephrine & norepinephrine Two-Factor Theory of Emotion – Schachter and Singer (1962) • Theory – People infer emotion form autonomic arousal and then label it in accordance with their cognitive explanation of the arousal • Visceral arousal is thought to precede the mental awareness of an emotion  Similar to the James-Lange theory • General autonomic arousal is assumed for a wide variety of emotions  Similar to the Canon-Bard theory • We feel different emotions as a result of inferences we make from events in the environment • 2 Factors of Schachter’s Theory  Arousal – Roughly the same for all emotions  Cognition – People’s interpretation of the arousal based on the situation Two-Factor Theory Experiment • Subjects asked how they feel • Subjects not informed or misinformed about the effects of epinephrine • Given an injection of either epinephrine or placebo (i.e. Salt Water) • Put room w/ confederate who pretended to be feeling euphoric/anxious from the same injection Epinephrine Result • Most subjects interpreted their internal feelings from the situation – the confederate’s reactions Placebo Results • No change in the mood of the person Interpretation of the Results • There is a physiological change that occurs because of this drug – the person isn’t aware of it • When put in a room with someone who pretends to feel good, your mind assumes that what you’re feeling is a good feeling – and vice-versa  You interpret your unknown feelings using external factors • This only occurs when there is a physiological change as well • It didn’t work when the subjects already knew the effects of epinephrine  Their mind didn’t need to use external factors to explain an unknown feeling 1. Autonomic Arousal (Change) 2. Cognitive interpretation of that arousal Applications of the Two-Factor Theory Ovid – 2000 years ago • Explained how men could get a woman to fall in love with him Becker – Late 60s • LSD - people were going into emergency wards with Drug-Induced Psychosis • Becker was told to research the situation – he decided to study marijuana  Because LSD hadn’t been used for a very long time • Looked at medical records of people in emergency wards with DIP following marijuana usage  Looked from the beginning of the 20 century  Found that there were many records of this happening; but less ppl as the yrs passed  BUT – the amount of people using marijuana was increasing Medical Reattribution and “Drug” Psychosis Drug Culture Drug “Old” Culture  Names, explains, and Taken by Novice  Indicates or asserts that talks about the drug and “drugs cause mental its effects. New Experiences illness” or “took drugs as a result of underlying  May indicate to novice disorder and/or drug that he/she is having a precipitated psychotic typical reaction – Errors in Action reaction therefore he/she is normal • Becker – the second culture available – one may be faced with competing definitions about what is happening within his/her subjective experience • “Drugs cause mental illness” – may be seen as a self-fulfilling prophecy • 3 Conditions for Mechanism of Preventing “Psychosis”:  Drug must not cause damage  Users must share a set of understandings – i.e. a culture  Novice should be in a group setting Evolutionary Theories • Theory – emotions are innate reactions that do not depend on cognitive processes The Cognitive Component • Consists of subjective feelings that are often intense and difficult to control • Highly personal and subjective  Psychologists rely on verbal reports • People’s cognitive appraisals of events in their lives are key determinants and aspects of the emotion they experience • Modern focus on positive emotions and resilience • Affective Forecasting – Research shows that people are surprisingly bad at predicting the intensity and duration of their emotional reaction to events Cognitive Behavioural Therapy • Psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors – used to treat phobias, addiction, depression, anxiety, etc… • The way one interprets something makes a difference on how one feels about it • Normalization – Does one see their reaction to a traumatic event as a sign of personal weakness or a normal reaction to an abnormal event?  You can help someone understand the normal reaction to a traumatic event  This can help them understand their behaviours are normal – calms them down The Physiological Component • Emotions are accompanied by ‘visceral arousal’  What about emotions of comfort and peacefulness? • Autonomic nervous system and the flight-or-flight response – can be measured • Often measured by the Galvanic Skin Response (GSP) – part of polygraph test  There are claims that they are 85-90% accurate  Hotly disputed because nervousness is not able to be differentiated Affective Neuroscience – Neuroscience of Emotions • Emotion depends on activity in constellation of interacting brain centres  Hypothalamus, Amygdala, Limbic System, Prefrontal Cortex, Cingulate Cortex, Mesolimbic Dopamine Pathway, Left vs. Right Hemispheres • Thalamus sends information to the Prefrontal Cortex and Amygdala 1 System • Prefrontal Cortex – seems to process the meaning of emotional events and voluntary control, pursuit of goals • This type of processing is too slow to react to immediate dangers • More leisurely cognitive appraisal • Threats are evaluated more carefully and sends more info to the amygdala 2 System (Joseph LeDoux) • Amygdala – Central role (including conditioned fears)  At the core of a complex set of neural circuits  Process emotion in which sensory input is sent (via the thalamus)  Sent to the Amygdala (fast processing) and the Cortex • Part of the fast pathway triggering neural activity  autonomic arousal hormonal response • Highly adaptive warning system independent of cognitive awareness The Behavioural Component • Emotions revealed thru overt expressions such as “body language” or “nonverbal behaviour”  I.e. the way in which one sits, etc… • People can identify at least 6 emotions based on facial expressions • Facial-Feedback Hypothesis – asserts that facial muscles send signals to the brain that help the brain recognize the emotion that one is experiencing  Evidence that facial expression of emotion is largely innate – biologically based  Studies of Blind People and Cross-Cultural Studies Cultural Considerations • Ekman and Friesen have found cross-cultural agreement in the identification of emotions based on facial expressions • Cross-cultural similarities were found in the cognitive and physiological components of emotion • There are cultural disparities in how emotions are categorized and in public displays of them  i.e. – the meaning of a feeling can change cross-culturally Motivational Theories and Concepts • Motives are Hypothetical Constructs - theories we have about why behaviours have happened  Goal Directed Behaviour – when people are motivated to do something when they put a lot of effort, persistence, etc… Push (Drive) Theories • Drive – an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce tension • Homeostasis – a state of physiological equilibrium or stability; disruption of which = tension Pull (Incentive) Theories • Incentive – an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviour • Expectancy X Value Models – if you expect that you can get what you want by doing certain behaviours, you’ll put the effort into the behaviour  Effort  Performance  Performance  Outcome Evolutionary Theories • Motives are a product of natural selection that have had adaptive value  In terms of fostering reproductive success Range and Diversity of Human Motives • There are a limited number of biological motives – originating in bodily needs • There are an unlimited number of social motives – originating in social experiences Summary • Behaviours can be causes by internal (dispositional) or external (situational) causes  Internal causes are looked at as motivations which can be biological and/or social Sexual Motivation and Behaviour Determinants of Sexual Desire Hormonal Regulation • Relative balance of androgens (related to sexual desire in both sexes) and estrogens • Testosterone injections can revive sexual desires • Hypogonadism – leads to low levels of androgens and reduced sexual motivation • Sex offenders – drugs that lower testosterone levels seem to reduce sexual interest • Correlations are modest • Much evidence is based upon abnormal syndromes – may tell us little about normal functioning Pheromones • A chemical secreted by one animal that affects the behaviour of another • Usually detected via smell – do you think about this? • Aphrodisiacs – not much solid evidence about impact on sexuality • May help explain why females who live together tend to gradually become more synchronized regarding the timing of their menstrual cycle Attraction to a Partner • The Coolidge Effect – having sex with a different person each day will increase Desire  But is this really true in humans? • Can a new partner revive dwindling sexual interest? • In humans, can fantasy or imagination or innovativeness do the same? • In humans, do females do the selecting? – Yes Evolutionary Analysis of Human Sexual Behaviour Parental Investment Theory • The sex that makes the smaller investment in offspring will compete for mating opportunities with the sex that makes the larger investment – will be more discriminating in selecting partners • Males seem to show a greater interest in sex with a variety of partners  Casual, non-committed sex • Differences in mate preferences  Males seek cues for health an fertility – youthfulness  Females seek those who provide material resources and protection – dependable • Gender differences in relationship jealousy is such that:  Men are most threatened by sexual infidelity  Females are more threatened by emotional infidelity Controversies over Erotic Materials – Pornography • Can stimulate sexual desire • Intensity usually increases with the explicitness of the depiction • Similar effects on a physiological level in both male & females  But females often voice more dislike – likely because of sexism in erotica • Often stimulates overt sexual activity – does not seem to be related to sex crimes • May make individuals more “liberal” but dissatisfied with own sexual interactions  Creates unrealistic expectations • Aggressive Pornography – often just violence against women may perpetuate the myth that women enjoy being raped and ravaged (i.e. may alter attitudes about sexual behaviour)  Some suggest that this leads to sexual attacks on females by males (sexual coercion) • 25% of young women in the US may be victims of rape or attempted rape  Other estimates are much higher • In Canada 24,000 sexual assaults reported to police in 1999  Only the tip of the iceberg Sexual Orientation • A person’s preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals • Heterosexuality and Homosexuality Continuum – There isn’t just an all-or-none distinction • Greater plasticity in females’ sexuality – more easily modified by sociocultural factors Environmental Theories • Freudian Theorists – problem that must be fixed • Behaviour Theorists – A child is forced into an action with a same-sex person & gets a reward  Problem that must be fixed • These types of theories have not been supported by research • However – Early childhood behaviours and denial may suggest biological roots Biological Theories – Twin Studies • Twin studies have shown that genetic factors influence sexual orientation  52% of identical twins of gay men were gay  22% of fraternal twins of gay men were gay  11% of adopted brothers of gay men were gay • Anatomical differences in brain due to prenatal hormone secretn on neurological development Interactionist Theories • Argue that the genetic evidence is not overpowering and environment plays a role • Look at complex interactions between biological and environmental processes Ethological Approaches • Wickler – Bristleworm • Money – Imprinting and critical periods • Tiger – Male’s exclusive groups  Makes it better for hunting, and makes sure women stay home and take care of
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