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Chapter 10

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PSYC 1010
Ravi Naimpally

Chapter 10 Motivation and Emotion Notes pgs439487Motivational Theories and ConceptsMotivation involves goaldirected behaviour ex Needs wants interests and desires guide for actionsDrive TheoriesHomeostasis a state of psychological equilibrium or stability to behaviour A drive is an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tensionThey are disruptions For ex When your body temperature rises or drops noticeably automatic responses occurWhen individuals experience a drive they are motivated to purse actions that will lead to drive reductionEx During a long class you may begin to feel hungry hungerdrive motivates you to obtain foodDrive theories cannot explain all motivation ex Drive arousal you might stop for some ice cream after seeing an ad even though youre not hungryThe source of motivations lies within the organismIncentive Theories Incentive is an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviourFor ex Ice cream juicy steak approval from friends A on an exam promotion at workDrive theories emphasize how internal states of tension push people and incentive theories emphasize how external things pull peopleThe source of motivation lies outside in the environment no homeostasisDownplay the biological bases of human motivationExpectancyvalue models ones motivation to purse a particular course of action will depend on 1 expectancy about ones chances of attaining the incentive and 2 the value of the desired incentiveEx Your motivation to purse a promotion at work will depend on your estimate of the likelihood that you can snare the promotion expectancy and on how appealing the promotion is to you valueEvolutionary Theories Natural selection favours behaviours that maximize reproductive successpassing on genes to the next generationThey explain motives such as affiliation achievement dominance aggression and sex drive in terms of their adaptive valueDominance a reproductive or survival advantageThe range and Diversity of Human motivesbiological motives originate in bodily needs such as hungersocial motives originate in social experiences such as the need for achievementhunger is deceptiveexamples of biological motives hunger thirst sex body temperature excretory motive get rid of bodily waste sleep and rest activity aggressionExamples of social motives achievement need to excel affiliation need for social bonds autonomy need for independence nurturance dominance exhibition order play motive The Motivation of Hunger and EatingCannon theorized that stomach contractions cause hunger Later research showed that people continue to experience hunger even after their stomachs have been removedBrain Regulationhunger controlled in the hypothalamushypothalamus tiny structure at the base ofthe forebrain involved in the regulation of biological needs for survivallateral and the ventromedial areas of the hypothalamus are elements in the neural circuitry that regulates hunger were known as on and off switches for eating in the pasttoday the arcuate nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus play a larger role in the modulation of hungerArcuate nucleus more important more sensitive to incoming hunger signalsGetting the ventromedial hypothalamus results in increase in weightContemporary theories focus on neural circuits which depend on neurotransmitters interconnected with parallel and physiological processingGlucose and Digestive Regulation food taken into the body turns into glucose which circulates in the bloodGlucose is a simple sugar that is an important source of energyThe arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is sensitive to glucostatic fluctuations that contribute to the modulation of eating Actions that decrease blood glucose levels can increase hunger and actions that increase blood glucose level can make people feel satisfied Thus fluctuations in blood glucose level influence the experience of hungerCells in the stomach can send signals to the brain that inhibit further eating after you have consumed food Hormonal Regulation hormones contribute to hungerInsulin hormone secreted by the pancreas it must be present for cells to extract glucose from the bloodNot enough insulin leads to diabetesSmell and sight can stimulate secretion of insulin sensitive to bodys fat store Ghrelin after not eating for awhile ghrelin is secretedcauses stomach contractions after eating a hormone called CCK is releasedLeptin produced by fat cells throughout the body and released into the bloodstreamHigher levels of fat generate higher levels of leptin Leptin provides the hypothalamus with information about the bodys fat storesHigh leptin levels reduces tendency to be hungryAll the 4 hormones converge in the arcuate and paraventricular nuclei in hypothalamusThus hunger depends on interactions between neural circuits neurotransmitters systems digestive processes and hormonal fluctuationsEnvironmental Factors in the regulation of Hunger hungerbiological social and environmental needs
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