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Chapter 13

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PSYC 1010
Ravi Naimpally

Chapter 13 Stress Coping and Health 621EndStress comes in several different packages some being big other being small stress is experienced by every individual in some way or formExampleThe stress that new immigrants face in Canada ie finding a job proper housing etc Biopsychosocial modelstates that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological psychological and sociocultural factors the shift that has led to this psychological approach is that unlike the past which had stress due to contagious diseases caused by infectious agents the major killers of this century are chronic diseases such as heart disease cancer and strokes psychological factors such as stress and lifestyle play a large role in the development of these chronic diseasesAfter realizing that psychological factors play a major role in physical health a new branch of psychology was emerged known as health psychologyHealth Psychologyconcerned with how psychosocial factors relate to the maintenance of health and with causation prevention and treatment of illnessStress any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten ones wellbeing and that thereby tax ones coping abilities these threats could vary and are different for all individualsStudies show that in the aftermath of natural disasters typically the rates of psychological and physical illnessare elevated in the communities affectedThere are many factors affect the way an individual reacts to stress An individuals response to a stressor depending of many factors such as the type of stress controllability biological factors such as age and gender and the previous experience with stress MINOR STRESSES DO NOT PRODUCE MINOR EFFECTS Minor stresses may be troublesome due to the cumulative nature of stress Stress adds up and going through the same stress every day would put a burden on an individual backAppraisal stress lies in the Eye of the BeholderExperience of feeling stressed depends on what events one notices and how one chooses to appraise or interpret themPrimary Appraisalevaluation of whether an event is 1 irrelevant to you 2 relevant but not threating or 3 stressfulWhen you view an event as stressful you are likely to make anSecondary Appraisal evaluation of your coping resources and options for dealing with the stressThus your primary appraisal would determine whether you saw an upcoming psychology exam as stress Your secondary appraisal would determine how stressful the exam appeared in light of your assessment of your ability to deal with the eventStudies have shown that anxious neurotic people report more stress than othersIn order to analyze nature of stressful events they are divided into subtypes1Acute stressorsthreatening events that have a relatively short duration and an clear endpoint exdealing with major exams 2 Chronic stressorsthreatening events that are relatively long and no readily apparent time limitexfinancial strains such as credit card debtsThere are 4 major types of stress frustration conflict change and pressure1Frustrationany situation in which the pursuit of some goal is thwarted such as traffic jams when you have to reach work at a certain time2Conflict when two or more incompatible motivating or behavioural impulses compete for an expression There are three types of conflict 1ApproachApproach choice is made between two attractive goalsie free afternoon should I play tennis or racquet ball usually incorporated with minimal stress2AvoidanceAvoidance choice must be made between two unattractive goals highly stressful3ApproachAvoidance choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both an attractive and an unattractive side large pay but requires moving in to an unsafe neighbourhood Often produces vacillation meaning going back and forth beset by indecisionBOTH conflictfrustration are unavoidable3Change life changes such as marriage divorce which send a unique stressTo measure life change as a form of stress Holmes and Rahemade an Socail Readjustment Rating Scalethis consisted for 43 scenarios which participants have to answer and each scenario has a different rating on the scale based upon that the level of stress induced by life changes is calculated The higher the number the higher the stressThis scale later on was shown as not worthy of measurement because it focused primarily on negative aspect which would induce greater stress4Pressure involves expectation or demands that makes one behave in a certain way In order to measure pressure Weitencreated a scale this scale included selfimposed stress work and school pressure pressure from family peer relationshipsintimate relationships
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