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Chapter 13

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Agnieszka Kopinska
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter13ManycircumstancescancreatestressItcomesinallsortsofpackagesbigandsmallprettyanduglysimpleandcomplexStudentsinvariablyexperiencestressatspecificpointsthroughouttheacademicyearParentsofstudentsexperiencestressNomatterwhattheytoldyouabouthowmuchtheywerelookingforwardtoturningyourbedroomathomeintoanewofficetheywereexperiencingstressasyoupreparedtomoveawaytouniversitySometimesstressistheresultofeverydayrelativelyroutineeventssuchascommutingorreceivinganunexpectedbillinthemailSometimesthepackagebringingyourstressmightbeextraordinaryWeknowthatnewimmigrantstoCanadaareparticularlyvulnerabletostressastheyadapttoanewcountrycultureandperhapsanewlanguageLevittDaneLevitt2005SherVilens2010StatisticsCanada2011SometimestheeventsmayinvolvepersonaldangerForexampleimaginewhatwasrunningthroughthemindofDebFreeleofLondonOntarioin2010ShewasattackedandbittenbyagrizzlybearinYellowstoneNationalParkinsidehertentWhenthebearfirstbegantobitehershescreamedasshefeltherbonesbreakingThisenragedthebearandheincreasedhisattacksWhenshewasabletocalmherselfdownsheplayeddeadandwentlimpThebearthenleftheraloneSheevenhadthepresenceofmindtoapplyherowntourniquetstostopthebleedingNoteveryoneattackedbythebearthatdaysurvivedCBCNews2010OrconsiderhowyoumighthavereactedifyouhadbeenapassengerontheCanadianbasedecotouristshipExplorerInNovember2007theshipwassailinginthewatersoffAntarcticawhenithitasubmergedobjectrolledoverandbegantosinkPassengersHeadHome2007strandingthe154passengersandcrewinaveryinhospitableanddangerousenvironmentFortunatelytherewereenoughlifeboatsforallandhelpdidarriveintimetosaveeveryoneIninterviewswiththemediapassengerstalkedabouttheirworriesandthestresstheyfeltastheyfloatedinthefrigidAntarcticwatersforsixhoursuntiltheywererescuedOfcoursenotallcircumstancesthatcausestressarelikethisonejustgoingtothedentistcanbestressfulformanypeopleDoyouthinkyourreactionstostressdifferdependingonwhetheritisarelativelyroutineeventorsomethingoutoftheordinaryWewillanswerthisandmanyotherquestionsyoumighthaveaboutstressinthischapterWelldiscussthenatureofstresshowpeoplecopewithstressandthepotentialeffectsofstressStressismorethanjustanacademictopicitssomethingweareallexpertsinsomethingwithwhichweallhaveabundantexperienceandsomethingthatcanbedifficulttohandleandtotreatDeCicco2002ArecentsurveybyStatisticsCanadarevealedthatonefifthtoonequarterofCanadianadultsreportthatmostoftheirdaysareeitherquitestressfulorextremelystressfulGandhi2006withQuebecadultsreportingthehighestlevelsofstress26percentandthoseinNewfoundlandreportingthelowestlevels152percentStressseemstobeapartofoureverydaylifeConsideryourownexperiencesatschoolthisyearAtthispointintheacademicyearallofyouwhowerenewtocollegeoruniversityinSeptemberarenowveteransOnlyamomentsrefectionwilltellyouhowmuchyouhavechangedhowmuchyouhaveexperiencedinafewshortmonthsincludingtheeuphoriaofbecomingauniversityorcollegestudentofbeingimmersedinanewintellectualandsocialenvironmentYouhavealsoprobablyexperiencedthetensionmoststudentsgothroughastheypreparefortheirfirstmidtermsortheallnighterexperiencetogetapaperinontimePage595ButshouldntyoubeusedtoacademicstressOneofusremembersaconversationhehadwithaGrade2girlwhowaslinedupforclasswaitingforthebellwhenallofherclassmateswerestillplayingintheschoolyardShelookednervousanddistressedWhenaskedwhyshewasliningupsoearlysherepliedthatshehadwaytoomuchworktodoandthatitwasstressingheroutAlthoughyouhavehadpreviousexperiencewithacademicstressuniversityorcollegemayprovideadditionalandmorevariedstressprovokingsituationsGenerallythesesettingsofferalessstructuredenvironmentthanyourhighschoolenvironmentandoneinwhichyoumaynothavetheimmediacyofasupportivefamilyOneIpsosReidpollofCanadianuniversitystudentsrevealedthatwhilemanystudentsexperiencestressinuniversity40percentreportedexperiencinghighstressatexamtimeMcKenzie2005CanadianuniversitiesandcollegeshavecometorealizetheimportanceofstressreductionfortheirstudentsManynowschedulestressbustereventstocoincidewithexamperiodsAquickscanofuniversitywebsitesconfirmedthatthispracticeiscommonincludingeventssuchasfreemassagesguidedmeditationprofessionaladviceoncopingwithstressbreakdancingcarnivalgamesfreevideogamesmartialartstrainingandsportscompetitionsTheUniversityofAlbertahasinteractivesoftwareonitswebsitecalledStudentsandStressHowtoGetYourDegreewithoutLosingYourMindthatprovidesstressselfassessmenttoolsandeducationregardingstressmanagementTheUniversityofPrinceEdwardIslandswebsitehasaparticularlygoodsectiononstudyandstressreductionhintsforstudentsOurexaminationoftherelationshipbetweenstressandphysicalillnesswillleadusintoabroaderdiscussionofthepsychologyofhealthThewaypeopleinhealthprofessionsthinkaboutphysicalillnesshaschangedconsiderablyinthepast30yearsThetraditionalviewofphysicalillnessasapurelybiologicalphenomenonhasgivenwaytoabiopsychosocialmodelofillnessFriedmanAdler2007SulsLugerDavidson2010TheBiopsychosocialmodelholdsthatphysicalillnessiscausedbyacomplexinteractionofbiologicalpsychologicalandsocioculturalfactorsThismodeldoesnotsuggestthatbiologicalfactorsareunimportantItsimplyassertsthatthesefactorsoperateinapsychosocialcontextthatisalsoinfluentialWhathasledtothisshiftinthinkingInpartitsaresultofchangingpatternsofillnessPriortothe20thcenturytheprincipalthreatstohealthwerecontagiousdiseasescausedbyinfectiousagentsdiseasessuchassmallpoxtyphoidfeverdiphtheriayellowfevermalariacholeratuberculosisandpolioTodaynoneofthesediseasesisamongtheleadingkillersinNorthAmericaTheyweretamedbyimprovementsinnutritionpublichygienesanitationandmedicaltreatmentGrob1983UnfortunatelythevoidleftbycontagiousdiseaseshasbeenfilledalltooquicklybychronicdiseasesthatdevelopgraduallysuchasheartdiseasecancerandstrokePsychosocialfactorssuchasstressandlifestyleplayalargeroleinthedevelopmentofthesechronicdiseasesThegrowingrecognitionthatpsychologicalfactorsinfluencephysicalhealtheventuallyledtotheemergenceofanewspecialtyinpsychologycalledhealthpsychologyHealthpsychologyisconcernedwithhowpsychosocialfactorsrelatetothepromotionandmaintenanceofhealthandwiththecausationpreventionandtreatmentofillnessInthesecondhalfofthischapterwellexplorethisnewdomainofpsychologyInthePersonalApplicationwellfocusonstrategiesforenhancingstressmanagreementandintheCriticalThinkingApplicationwelldiscussstrategiesforimprovinghealthrelateddecisionmakingPage597ThewordstresshasbeenusedindifferentwaysbydifferenttheoristsWelldefineStressasanycircumstancesthatthreatenorareperceivedtothreatenoneswellbeingandthattherebytaxonescopingabilitiesThethreatmaybetoimmediatephysicalsafetylongrangesecurityselfesteemreputationpeaceofmindormanyotherthingsthatonevaluesStressisacomplexconceptsoletsexploreitalittlefurtherStressasaneverydayeventThewordstresstendstosparkimagesofoverwhelmingtraumaticcrisesPeoplemaythinkoftornadoeshurricanesfoodsandearthquakesUndeniablymajordisasterssuchasthetsunamithathitJapaninMarch2011andthesubsequentproblemswiththeFukushimanuclearpowerplantandthedevastationcausedbyHurricaneKatrinainLouisianain2005wereextremelystressfuleventsManagingTraumaticStress2005StudiesconductedintheaftermathofnaturaldisasterstypicallyfindelevatedratesofpsychologicalproblemsandphysicalillnessinthecommunitiesaffectedbythesedisastersStevensRaphaelDobson2007vanGriensvenetal2007WeislerBarbeeTownsend2007Forexample15monthsafterHurricaneKatrinadevastatedtheNewOrleansareaasurveyofresidentsuncovereddramaticincreasesinphysicalandmentalhealthproblemsKimetal2008HowevertheseunusualeventsareonlyasmallpartofwhatconstitutesstressManyeverydayeventssuchaswaitinginlinehavingcartroubleshoppingforgiftsmisplacingyourcellphoneandevencommutingarestressfulPage598InfactconcernsabouttheeffectsofcommutingincreaseasthetimewespendinourcarssimplygettingtoworkincreasesCanadiansnowspendnearly12fulldaysperyearonaveragejustgettingtoworkFor1992to2005theamountoftimewespentinourcarsgettingtoworkincreasedonaverageby20percentStatisticsCanada2006OfcourseanumberoffactorsaffectthenatureofanyindividualsreactionstostressAccordingtoAnismanAnismanMerali1999Magalhesetal2010anindividualsresponsetoastressorisafunctionofanumberoffactorsincludingthetypeofstressoranditscontrollabilitybiologicalfactorssuchasageandgenderandtheindividualspreviousexperiencewithstressYoumightguessthatminorstresseswouldproduceminoreffects
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