PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Margaret Floy Washburn, American Psychological Association, Wilhelm Wundt

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Published on 19 Nov 2011
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology
From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed
A New Science Is Born: The Contributions of Wundt and Hall
The term psychology comes from two Greek words, psyche, meaning the soul
and logos, referring to the study of a subject
First put together in the 16th century and was not until the 18th century that the
term acquired its literal meaning, “the study of the mind”
Psychology’s intellectual parents were 19th century philosophy and physiology
Psychology was born as an independent discipline when Wilhelm Wundt
established the first psychological research lab in 1879 at Leipzig, Germany
Wundt declared that the new psyc should be science modelled after fields such as
physics and chem, he wanted its primary focus on consciousness
G. Stanley Hall established America’s first research lab in psyc, launched
America’s first psyc journal and was the driving force behind the establishment of the
American Psychological Association (APA)
oImportant to the growth of psychology in America.
3 Components of Psychology:
1. Body of knowledge
2.Set of skills
3.Way of thinking
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The Battle of the “Schools” Begins: Structuralism vs. Functionalism
Structuralism emerged through the leadership of Edward Titcherner which was based on
the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into basic elements and
investigate how these elements are related such as sensations, feelings and images
oTo examine the contents of consciousness, the structuralists depended on
the methods of introspection, the careful, systematic self-observation of
one’s own conscious experience
Functionalists took a different view, was based on the belief that psychology should
investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure, established
by William James
James (1980) contended that psychology should investigate functions rather then
structure
oArgued that structuralist approach missed the real nature of the conscious
experience as consciousness consists of a continuous flow of thoughts.
Functonalists are interested in how people adapt their behavior to the demands of the
world.
According to the principal of natural selection, heritable characteristics that provide a
survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristic to be
passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be “selected” over time
Watson Alters Psychology’s Course as Behaviourism Makes its Debut
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Founded by John B Watson, behaviourism is a theoretical orientation based on
the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior, thus they
campaigned to redefine psychology as the science of behaviour
oOvert: behavior or actions we can observe/measure
oCovert: behavior/actions that cannot be observed directly like thoughts/feelings
Behavior: any overt response or activity from an organism.
Watson spoke about nature vs nurture:
oConcerned with whether behavior is determined mainly by genetic inheritance or
by environmental experience
oWatson strongly believed in nuture (environment)
Stimulus: any detectable input from the environment so they began to explore
stimulus-response relationships, often using laboratory animals as subjects (S-R
psychology).
Margaret Floy Washburn , first woman psychologist in the U.S.
Gesalt Psychology is primarily concerned with perception & argued that
psychology should continue to study conscious experience rather then overt behavior.
Freud Brings the Unconscious into the Picture
According to Sigmund Freud, the unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and
desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert
great influence on behaviour
His psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and
mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior
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Document Summary

A new science is born: the contributions of wundt and hall and logos, referring to the study of a subject. The term psychology comes from two greek words, psyche, meaning the soul term acquired its literal meaning, the study of the mind . First put together in the 16th century and was not until the 18th century that the. Psychology"s intellectual parents were 19th century philosophy and physiology established the first psychological research lab in 1879 at leipzig, germany. Psychology was born as an independent discipline when wilhelm wundt physics and chem, he wanted its primary focus on consciousness. Wundt declared that the new psyc should be science modelled after fields such as: stanley hall. America"s first psyc journal and was the driving force behind the establishment of the. American psychological association (apa) established america"s first research lab in psyc, launched: important to the growth of psychology in america. 3 components of psychology: body of knowledge.

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