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Chapter 7

Psyc 1010 Chapter 7 (memory) summary

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Rebecca Jubis
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 7 – memory Different Kinds of info stored in LTM different compartments in long term memory to store dif information 1 Procedural – memory of how to do things, actions and skills- ex your fingers automatically know what numbers to press for your pin number even when u r mind blanks out 2. Declarative – memory for facts a) semantic memory - general information about rules or things that we have over learned - these memories are not linked to a specific time and place - if asked what ppl do to shoqw affection u wouold say that they kiss, u ust know that - you just know the colour of a 5 dollar bill - ppl have turkey for chirstmas - general fact that ppl gereally tend to know - your address – uve knwon it forever, you cant pinpoint when u leanred it so its sematic , but if u just moved and have a new address and ur trying to memorize this new address, this would be something n your epsidoic memory b) episodic memory - involves memory for specifc events or episodes rather than repeated ones - these are usually unique events rather than repreated ones - ex: the first kiss, its unique so u remember it - this is autobiographic to your own life - what did u have for dinner on Monday night – this is a specific epidsode, one specifc unique event - Implicit memory (incidental memory, unconscious – you don’t intentionally try to remember it byut you just do) vs. Explicit memory (you wre intentialny trying to remerber the information) - ex: ex: you are told to rmeber the words on a page – this is explicit, biut if you also remebr the colour of the words – this is implicit -When u ride a bike or tie your shoe you do not intnentioally try to remember but u just remember it aurtomatically -Explicit is under declarative -Implicit is under procedural Inablilty to recall info in LTM: - Sometimes you know something but u are unable to remerb information that is in your long term memory – why?  Pseudo forgetting: fake forgetting – the information never went into memoery system in first place so they are not actually foregetting  Decay or displacement: if you don’t do something once stored in short term it is going to decay and it will not be transferred to long term or it will be kicked out - ther are cases when it thje infor does male to long term memory store but u are not able to access information Why is onformation not accessible in LTM 1. - Context-dependent forgetting or encoding-specificity principle - Not able to recall because the cues used for retrieving information are different from those used at encoding - You are using an inappropriate search strategy o Spme cuew from the classroom can be incorporated with the information beting taught therefore if the cures that were there whaen u learned the material match the cures being used when later trying to remerbe the info then chances are you will be able to remebr the info – the problem is when their is a mismatch between cues when u learned info and remerbing info, thats when ur using inapprpitpate search stratedgy o Ex: someone says do u remember Jane from party, ans they so no, then ub say she used to go out with Joe, and they say no, then u say remerber the ugly dress she was wearing, then they say yes – when u first meet someone u don’t remerb their name, yuo remerb what they lok like and their personality therefoe u met jane, you payed attentionto her clothing therefore when her name or her bf name are stated there is a mismatch, only when u say the dress, then u have match because that was the cue used in encoding and retrieval – therefore we forget things if the cues are not the same o Ex: if prof runs into student at school they now they knoiw them from the class, but if they run into them at store ourside of school they don’t remerb from where – this is because of context – there is a mismatch o You got something in your hand, the phone rings u leave and drop ehat had in your hand but when u come back for it you cant find it because cant remerb where u put it – but if u retrace your steps yuo are recreating the context and the u remerb where u put it o When listenting to CD at the end of one song before the next song starts, you insntant;y know what the enxt song is going to be 2. interference (competition from other material) encoding -> retention interval -> retrieval - Retention means being able to contuie to remerb info that u leanred - If you leanrd oinfo for a test and then could sleep btn the time u studies and time u had to write it and there is no new material to remerber but if u have a whole bunch of info thats new then u will have problems retrieving infoo at a later point and time --? a) Retroactive interference o New information intereferes with the recall of older information b) Proactive interference o Older information interferes with the reacall of the newer information - Ex: have an eco test coming up, u strat studying for eco, then u switch to psych then u write eco test – then u may fin d that psych is starting to interefere with the racal of the eco information - retroactive interference - Ex: if u strudy psych then eco then wrote eco test, then u culd still have psych strat to interfere with eco information andtherfore interfere with ability to recall eco information - When kids are small, they seem to reber information that is trivial ans irrelevant – thats becasuw wat does a four year old have to commit ton memory – they don’t have clutter that adults have therefore les interference and therefore able to remerb things that are less important better Test 3 – Depth (or levels) of processing approach to memory Level 1 l Appearance – ehichi wors Structural encoding – u written in capitol letters, just process what it looks how many letters like – not a good way if u want the info to be permenantent and remerb it later Level 2 l Sound – what ryhymes Phonemic with wo
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