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Chapter 6

PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Antibody, Social Learning Theory, Phoneme


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Doug Mc Cann
Chapter
6

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Chapter 6 : Learning
Learning: relative permanent change in immediate or potential behavior that result from
experience.
Learning models:
Classical Conditioning ( Ivan Pavlov)
Operant Conditioning (Skinner)
Social Learning Theory (Bandura)
Classical Conditioning
Classical: Learn to associate two stimuli as going together. Classical conditioning is the
type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was
originally evoked by another stimulus.
Ivan Pavlov
-prominent Russian Physiologist who was absent minded
-showed how learning was under the influence of experience and that “
associations could built up in consciousness
Physic reflex reaction ; also known as Conditioned reflex (dog): Before conditioning
food is presented as a (U.S), which naturally causes the dog to salivate (U.R)
-During Conditioning a Bell (C.S) is paired with the meat powder ( U.S) , which
also creates the dog to salivate (U.R)
-After Conditioning- Then Pavlov produces the bell (C.S) through conditioning
and the dog salivate (C.R)
*Unconditioned response and conditioned response consist of the same behaviour
( both salivation.
* Classical conditioned responses have traditionally been characterized as reflexes and
are said to be elicited( drawn forth) because most are automatic or involuntary
Classical Conditioning Plays a role in :
1. Fear and anxiety
Phobia – Trace back to experiences that involve classical conditioning
Ex: student afraid of bridges – Bridge ( CS)- Fathers scare tactics (UCS)
= Fear (CR/UCR)
2. Attitudes
Advertising – advertisers make their products conditioned stimuli that elicit
pleasant emotional responses by pairing their products with attractive or popular
people/ sexual imagery.
EX: Products ‘underwear (CS)- Attractive person ‘Tyrese’ (UCS)=
Pleasant conditional response (CR/UCR)
3. Physiological Responses

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Immune system – when there’s an invasion in our bodies our immune system
repels the invasion by producing antibodies. These importance become evident
when immune system is disabled
-Classical conditioning can lead to Immunosuppression: a decrease in the
production of antibodies.
Ex: Unusual tasting liquid (CS)- Injection of immunosuppressive drug(UCS)=
Immunosuppression (UCR/CR)
Process in Classical Conditioning
Acquisition Processes- initial stage of learning
-depends on stimulus contiguity. Stimulus are contiguous if they occur together in
time and space.
Ex: Woman emotional reaction to Beesmans gum and cigarettes: reminds
her of her boyfriend Charlie
Extinction-Weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency
Ex: Pavlov consistently presented only the tone to a previously conditioned dog.
The tone gradually lost its capacity to elicit the response of salivation
Spontaneous Recovery- is the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of
nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus.
Ex; Pavlov extinguished the dogs salivation CR to a tone and returned him home.
The dog was brought back after some days, the tone was sounded and the salivation
response reappeared
Operant Conditioning
Operant – a form of learning in which responses com to be controlled by their
consequences
any voluntary behaviour can be taught according to operant principles
ex: studying-test=good marks
Thorndike’s Law of Effect
Instrumental learning ( another name for operant conditioning) ; Edward L.
Thorndike (1913)
Problem solving with Cats
-Hungry cat is placed in a ‘puzzle box’ with food available outside. To escape cat
performs a specific response by pulling a wire or depressing a lever. upon escape
the cat is rewarded with food and return back into cage.
-The cat was monitored to see how long it took it to escape
-Law of Effect: if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying
effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened
B.F Skinners
The Air Crib –modernize the raising of children

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Pigeons – beaks used to pecking order to guide missiles to their target
Reinforcement- occurs when an event following a response increases an
organism tendency to make that response; a response is strengthened because it
leads to rewarding consequences
Operant chamber or Skinner box : small enclosure in which an animal can
make a specific response that is recorded while consequences of the response are
systematically controlled
- rat ( press a level mounted on the wall)
- Pigeon ( pecks a disk mounted on a side wall)
- The skinner box permits the experimenter to control the Reinforcement
Contingencies ( are the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses
lead to the presentation of reinforcers)
- animals rate of response is monitored by a Cumulative recorder which
creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a skinner box as a
function of time( no responding – pen is still straight horizontal line, response-
pen move upward, each reinforce- pen makes slash marks)
- results of operant-conditioning are portrayed in graphs , horizontal axis-
time, vertical axis- responses.
Process in Operant conditioning
Shaping - consist of the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a
desired response. Ex Puppy was trained to ring a bell whenever the needed to go
outside to pee (shaping). To get the puppy(Meisje) to this stage the owner, had to
reward the puppy with a treat (reinforcement) to allow the puppy to come closer
and closer to ringing the bell(indication of his needs to pee)
Ex2: Skinner and the pigeons playing Ping-Pong. Also skinner shaped a rat to
press a lever to receive food by offering reinforcements to the closer the rat comes
to pressing the lever
Extinction
-refers to the gradual weakening and disappearance of a response tendency
because the response is no longer followed by a reinforce.
-Resistance to extinction: occurs when an organism continues to make a response
after delivery of the reinforcement has been terminated. Ex: lever pressing (rat)-
keep pressing even if reinforcement isn’t given
Stimulus Control
-when a response is consistently followed by a reinforcement in the presence of a
particular stimulus, that stimulus comes to serve as a ‘signal’ indicating that the
response is likely to lead to a reinforcement.
-Discriminative stimuli: cues that influence operant behaviour by indicating the
probable consequence (reinforcement or no reinforcement) of a response
-Primary reinforcers: events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy
biological need(ex. Humans have food, water warmth and sex)
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