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Chapter 8

Chapter 8

10 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

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Chapter 8 Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledgeLANGUAGE TURNING THOUGHTS INTO WORDS What is languageLanguage consists of symbols that convey meaning plus rules for combining those symbols that can be used to generate an infinite variety od messagesProperties o Symbolicpeople use spoken sounds and written words to represent object actions event and ideas o Semanticmeaningfulthe symbols used in a language are arbitrary in that no builtin relationship exists between the look or sound of words and the objects they stand for o Generativea limited number of symbols can be combined in an infinite variety of ways to generate an endless array of novel messages o Structured sentences must be structured in a limited amount of ways The Structure of LanguagePhonemesBase of the language hierarchyPhonemes the smallest speech units in a language that can be distinguished perceptuallyEnglish language is composed of about 40 phonemes corresponding roughly to the 26 letters of the alphabet plus several variations Morphemes and SemanticsMorphemes the smallest units of meaning in a languageApprox 50000 English Morphemes which include root words as well as prefixes and suffixeso Single morphemesex Fire guard friend o Combination of morphemes unfriendlySemantics the area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations SyntaxSyntax a system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentencesSimple rule of this a sentence must have both a subject and a verb Milestones in Language DevelopmentMoving toward Producing WordsJanet Werker argues that human infants are well prepared to learn language and that babies have perceptual biases that facilitate the acquisition of phonology Using Words
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