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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 - Human Memory

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Chapter 7Human MemoryBehaviouristic approach o Emphasizes overt observable behaviour o Stresses the stimulusresponse SR relationship and argues that these relationships are stamped inSR relationshipsphysical connections in the brain that make our responses automaticCognitive approach o Scognitions thinking processevaluate predict interpret expectationsresponse o Action is not automaticHelps you determine whether or not to respond o There is a stepping stone between the stimulus and responseo Memory can be a factor in the cognitive processHistory of the cognitive approach o KohlerStudied learning and intelligence in chimpsPopular belief at the timelearning was trial and error y Kohler argued that chimps have insight the sudden understanding of how to solve a problem o Known as the AHA phenomenon o Was an example of cognitive processing in animals o Tinklepaugh also worked with chimpsSaidanimals have memory and expectations cognitive processes o Tolmanrats learned to find their way through a maze if motivated by foodHad a cognitive map of the mazeThree key processes involved in memory o Encodinggetting information in involves forming a memory code requires attention o Storagemaintaining encoded information in memory over time o Retrievalrecovering information from memory storesEncoding Getting Information into MemoryNextinlineeffect you are too preoccupied rehearsing what you want to say that you dont pay attention to what is being said o You dont encode the information for storage into memoryThe Role of AttentionGenerally you need to pay attention to info in order to remember itAttentionfocussing awareness on a narrowed range of stimulievents o Linked to a filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a select few to pass through into conscious awarenessBecause it would be too confusing to focus on everything at onceUnknown whether the filtering process occurs early during sensory output or later after the brain has processed the meaning of the input y Cocktail party phenomenon you hear your name mentioned at a party in a conversation that they were not paying attention to the rest of the conversation is unknown to you because you have been filtering what was meaningless information to you until you heard your name o Suggests the filtering happens later y Since there is evidence for early late and intermediate filtering scientists have suggested that the filter may be flexible not fixed o The more complex the info the earlier the filtering will take place o People have difficulty concentrating on more than one stimuli at a timeNegatively effects memory and the performance of a variety of tasksA lot of the information we remember we do so because of effortful processing oBut some things we remember automatically like the frequent use of a certain word Levels of Processing Differences in how people attend to information are the main factors influencing how much they rememberCraik and Lockhart propose that incoming verbal information can be processed at three progressively deeper levels o Structural encodingshallow processing that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus how it looks o Phonemic encodingemphasizes what a word sounds like namingsaying the words o Semantic encodingemphasizes the meaning of verbal input thinking about the objects and actions the word representLevelsofprocessing theory deeper levels of processing result in longer lasting memory codes and better recall only one store house in this theory o Levels remain vaguely defined time is not an indication of depth of processing o Level 1appearance structural processing o Level 2sound phonemic processing o Level 3 best recallmeaning semantic processing Enriching EncodingBesides structural phonemic and semantic encoding memory codes can be formed using elaboration visual imagery and selfreferent codingElaborationElaboration linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding o Thinking of examples that illustrate an ideaVisual ImageryImagerythe creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered o Can be used to help with encoding
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