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Chapter 7


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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

CHAPTER 7 HUMAN MEMORY Semantic Memory Memory for general informationEpisodic Memory Memory for personal eventsThere are three key processes involved in memory o Encoding Involves forming a memory code o Storage Involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time o Retrieval Involves recovering information from memory storesENCODING GETTING INFORMATION INTO MEMORYNextinline effect If participants in a small group take turns speaking to the group subsequent memory tests reveal that subjects tend to not recall much of what was said just before they took their turn o Because when participants are next in line to speak they are too preoccupied rehearsing to pay attention to what is being saidThus the encoding step in the process of memory is crucialThe Role of AttentionAttention Involves focusing awareness on a narrow range of stimuli or eventso Selective attention is critical to everyday functioningo Attention is often likened to a filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a select few to pass througho However a debate exist as to when this filter is active is it during sensory input or after the brain has processed all the informationo CocktailParty Phenomenon At a party an individual may be focusing on just their conversation while many are occurring around them although once they hear someone mention their name they are suddenly aware of the conversation of another person even though they were previously not paying attention to it This suggests that attention involves late selection which is based on the meaning of the inputo While much of the information that we remember is encoded as a result of effortful processing some types of information may be acquired more automaticallyLevels of Processing According to some theorists the differences in how people attend to information are the main factors influencing how much they remembero Theorists argue that different rates of forgetting occur because some methods of encoding create more durable memory codes than others
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