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Chapter 8


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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

CHAPTER 8 LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT Cognition Refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledgeLANGUAGE TURNING THOUGHTS INTO WORDS What is LanguageLanguage Consists of symbols that convey meaning plus rules for combining those symbols that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messageso Language is symbolico Language is semanticor meaningfulo Language is generative can generate new words etco Language is structured must follow a certain structure when generating wordsphrasesThe Structure of LanguageHuman languages have a hierarchial structureBasic sounds are combined into units with meaning which are combined into words words to phrases phrases to sentenceso Phonemes Phonemes The smallest speech units in a language that can be distinguished perceptuallyy The English language is composed to about 40 phonemes corresponding roughly to the 26 letters of the alphabeto Morphemes and Semantics Morphemes The smallest units of meaning in a languagey Approximately 50 000 English morphemes including root words as well as prefixes and suffixesy Morphemes contribute to the meaning of the entire word o Semantics The area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations A words meaning may consist of its denotation dictionary definition and its connotation its emotional overtones and secondary implications o SyntaxSyntax A system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentencesy A sentence must have both a subject and a verbMilestones in Language Development
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