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PSYC 1010 (1,075)
Chapter 9


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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

CHAPTER 9 INTELLIGENCE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING KEY CONCEPTS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTINGPsychological Test A standardized nit of measure of a sample of a persons behaviourPrinciple Types of Tests Mental Ability Tests Include three main subcategoriesoIntelligence Tests Measure general mental ability and intellectual potential oAptitude Tests Assess specific types of mental abilities oAchievement Tests Gauge a persons mastery and knowledge of various aspects and measure previous learning Personality Tests Measure various aspects of personality including motives interests values and attitudes Standardization and Norms Standardization The uniform prodecures used in the administration and scoring of a test oTest should have the same scoring systems instructions type of questions and time limitsTest Norms Provide information about where a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to other scores on that testoStandardization Group The sample of people that the norms are based uponPercentile Score The percentage of people who score at the same or below the score that you have ReliabilityReliability Repeated measurements based upon the test should have similar results You can check the reliability of a test by oTestretest Reliability When you compare a subjects scores on two administrations of the same test Can use correlational coefficients to determine the degree of relationship between the two scores Can give parallel forms to avoid the practice effect you may get from testretest reliability oSplitTest Reliability Divide the test into halves and distribute the halves to different groups of people then compare the two sets of scores for the different halves of the test the two should be roughly equal Validity Validity The ability of a test to measure that it is supposed to measure There are various ways of measuring validityoContent Validity The degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain its supposed to cover oCriterionrelated Validity Estimated by correlating a subjects score on one test with his score on an independent criterion another test that measures the trait being assessed by the first test Can be used to predict performance oConstruct Validity The extent to which there is evidence that a test can measure a particular hypothetical construct Measuring creativity honesty friendliness etcTHE EVOLOUTION OF INTELLIGENCE TESTING Galtons Studies of Hereditary GeniusGalton says that intelligence is reflected by superior sensory acuity and physical attributes he hypothesized that oSuccess runs in families because great intelligence is passed from generation to generation through heredity oExceptionally bright people should exhibit sensory acuity However his latter hypothesis was disproven Binets Breakthrough Binet determined that intelligence is can be determined by how well a person can reason and memorize information presented to them
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