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Chapter 16

Chapter 16

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York University
PSYC 1010
Myriam Mongrain

Chapter 16 Social BehaviorSocial psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals thoughts feelings and behaviors are influenced by others The study of interactions between peoplePERSON PERCEPTIONPeople are judged by their physical appearanceGoodlooking attractive individuals are seen as more sociable friendly poised warm and well adjustedExample babyfaced people are viewed as more honest and trustworthyObservers are quick to draw conclusions about people based on how they move talk and gestureThese conclusions tend to be fairly accurateSchemas are cognitive structures that guide information processingsocial schemas are organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and people frat rats wimps snobs dumb jocks etc people place on another in these categories or social schemasStereotypes are widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular groupStereotypes tend to be broad overgeneralizations that can lead us to see what we expect to see and to overestimate how often we have seen it illusory correlationIllusory correlation occurs when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association between social traits than they actually have seen Evolutionary psychologists assert that humans are programmed by evolution to immediately classify people as members of an ingroupa group that one belongs to and identifies with or as members of outgroupa group that one does not belong to or identify with Ingroup members tend to be viewed in a favorable lightWhereas outgroup people are viewed with negative stereotypesPeople tend to overestimate the degree to which others pay attention to them spotlight and people tend to think that their knowledge of peers is greater than their peers knowledge of them illusion of asymmetric insightSpotlightpeoples tendency to assume that the social spotlight shines more brightly on them than it actually does Illusion of asymmetric insightthe finding that people tend to think what they knowknowledge is greater then what others know knowledgeATTRIBUTIONinterferences that people draw about the causes of events other ppls behavior and their own behaviorAttribute behaviors to others Power of the situation can influence the way you think Example teenage son just crashed the car they could blame it on his carelessness internalI did it because I was scared or blame on the slippery road externalI did it because it was raining Internal attributions the causes of behavior to personal dispositions traits abilities and feelingsExternal attributions the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints According to Bernard Weiner attributions for success and failure can be analyzed along the stableunstable and internalexternal dimensionsExample failed to get the job you wantedInternalstable attributions lack of ability ability intelligenceInternalunstable attributions inadequate effort to put together an eyecatching resume effort mood fatigueExternal stable too much outstanding competition task difficultyExternal unstable bad luck luck chance opportunityStabilityI got a good mark because Im smart I got a bad mark because Im stupidAutomatic conclusions Bias in Attribution1Fundamental attribution error refers to observers bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining others behavioran actors behavior reflects his personal qualities look over at someone who got a bad mark jump to the conclusion that they are stupidYou dont take into consideration that maybe they got a bad mark because they didnt have enough time to study or maybe they have family problems etc2Actorobserver bias example your actor freaking out in rage because of your bank accountObservers in the bank will make internal attribution and conclude that you are temperamental or rude Perhaps youre normally calm and easygoing Its only because of the situation your in that explains the way you were acting waiting in line for 20 mins rude teller pissed u off etcactorobserver bias refers to the fact that actors favor external attributions in explaining their own behavior whereas observers favor internal attributions 3Defensive attribution is the tendency to blame the victim for the misfortune so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar mannerExample a young girl got rapedObservers will blame the victim well she asked for it look at the way she was dressed and how she was acting like a slutIf you blame the victim it gives closure to people because it makes people believe that bad things wont happen to good people
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