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Chapter 2

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PSYC 1010
Myriam Mongrain

Oct52003 CHANAPSNotes From ReadingCHAPTER 2 THE RESEARCH ENTERPRISE IN PSYCHOLOGYILooking for Laws The Scientific Approach to BehaviorAGoals of The Scientific Enterprise Scientific Enterprise assumes that events are governed by some lawful order1Measurement and DescriptionDevelop measurement techniques that make it possible to describe behavior clearly and precisely2Understanding and Predictionexplain reasons for an occurrenceaHypothesistentative statement about relationship between 2 or more variablesbVariablesany measurable conditions events characteristics or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study3Application and ControlPractical Problems and how to control them4Theorya system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observationsaMust be testableBSteps in a Scientific Investigation Scientific Investigation are systematicfollow an orderly pattern1Step 1 Formulate a Testable HypothesisaHypothesis expressed as a predictionbOperational Definition describes actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable IV DV CV2Step 2 Select the Research Method and Design the Study ie How to put the hypothesis through an Empirical TestaSubjectsParticipantspersons or animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study3Step 3 Collect the DataaData Collection Techniques procedures for making empirical observations and measurements ie direct observation questionnaires interviews etc 4Step 4 Analyze the Data and Draw ConclusionsaResearchers use statistics to analyze their data and decide whether their hypothesis has been supported 5Step 5 Repeat the Findings Share findings with other scientists and general populationaDone through journalsperiodicals that publish technical and scholarly material usually in a narrowly defined area of inquirybAllows others to evaluate and critique new findings Discloses flawsCAdvantages of the Scientific Approach1Clarity and Precisionenhance communication about important ideas2Intolerance for Error3Research MethodsDiffering approaches to observation measurement manipulation and control of variables in empirical studies IILooking for Causes Experimental ResearchAIndependent and Dependant Variables1Experiment a research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result ie Cause and Effect Relationships2How x affects y
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