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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Psyc Notes.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Myriam Mongrain

Chapter 10 Motivation and EmotionMotivational Theories and ConceptsMotivation the state or process that influences the direction persistence and vigour of goaldirected behaviouro Biopsychosoical phenomenono May exist without drive arousalMotives are the needs wants interests and desires that propel people in certain directions Drive theories apply to a homeostatic model to motivation but cannot explain all motivationHomeostasis is a state of physiological equilibrium or stability that organsims seek to maintaino TEMPERATURE Internal autonomic nervous systemToo high body engages the autonomic nervous system and causes vasodialation and begins to sweatToo cold vasoconstrictionExternal voluntary behaviours Seek to reach an optimal body temp by adjusting clothingo THIRSTInternal Secretion of ADH Thirsty body trys to retain water by secreting ADH External voluntary behaviours Drink water if thirstyo FOOD INTAKE They assume that organisms seek to reduce unpleasant states of tension called drivesDRIVE THEORY OF MOTIVATION A drive is an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tensiono Individuals experiencing a drive are motivated to pursue actions that will lead to drive reduction Needreduction theory physiological needs motivate organism to reduce those needs Satisfaction of needs leads to subjective feelings of pleasure Release of endorphins Regulated byo INTERNAL reflexive mechanisms o EXTERNAL voluntary behaviourso Clark ho all behaviour has a cause and those causes are the results of biological needs INCENTIVE THEORY OF MOTIVATIONIn contrast incentive COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE theories emphasize how external goals energize behaviouro An incentive is an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviourInfluence motivation based on qualityquantityo Drive theories emphasize how internal states of tension push people in certain directions while incentive theories emphasize how external stimuli pull people in certain directions o In drive theories the source of motivation lies within the organism while motivation exists outside the organism according to incentive theories According to expectancy value models motivation to pursue a course of action depends on 2 factorso Expectancy about chances of attaining the incentiveo Value of the desired incentiveEvolutionary theorists explain motives in terms of their adaptive value o Natural selection favours behaviours that maximize reproductive successMadsens list of biological needs and Murrays list of social needs illustrate that a diverse array of motives govern human behaviour Most theories distinguish bw biological motives originating in bodily needs hunger and social motives originating in social experiencesneed for achievement
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