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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Psyc Notes.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Myriam Mongrain

Chapter 11 Human Development across the Life SpanDevelopment is the sequence of age related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death Progress before Birth Prenatal DevelopmentDevelopment begins with conceptionThe prenatal period extends from conception to birth usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy o In the final weeks before birth the frenzied pace of prenatal development slows down Prenatal period is divided into 3 phaseso The germinal stage is the first phase of prenatal development encompassing the first two weeks after conceptionBegins when a zygote is created thru fertilizationA zygote is a onecelled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg lasting from conception to 2 weeks Within 36 hours zygote becomes a mass of cells that migrate to the thfallopian tube to the uterine cavity until the 7 day where the mass begins to implant itself in the uterine wall The placenta is a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mothers bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother o The embryonic stage is the second stage of prenatal development lasting from 2 ndweeks until the end of the 2 monthVital organsbodily systems begin to form Now called an embryo 25 cm long from Heart spinebrain emerge Arms legs hands fingers toes are discernable Period of great vulnerability most miscarriages occur in this stage The fetal stage is the third stage of prenatal development lasting from 2 months through birth sto 1 2 months of fetal stage bring rapid growth musclesbones begin to formo now called a fetus capable of physical movemento sex organs start to develop duringo layer of fat is deposited under the skin to provide insulationrepiratorydigestive systems matureo bw 2226 weeks the fetus reaches an age of viability the age at which a baby can survive in the event of premature birthEnvironmental FactorsPrenatal Development organism is influenced by outside stimuli Critical period o Limited time span in the development of an organism when its optimal for certain capacities to emerge bc the organism is especially responsive to certain experienceso Has to happen at a specific time or never occurso Heated debate whether or not language development is a critical period that can influence the overall proficiency in learning different languageso Imprinting form of learning closely associated with a specific time frame if it does not occur soon after birth it never will GoslingLorenz experiment Lorenz took eggs and took care of geese developed a maternal relationship with him as they were the first caregiver they were exposed toThis imprinting or tendency to respond to their caregiver is an innate response Genieisolated in a closet without any exposure to language for 8 years after she began learning language she showed characteristics of a 2 year old in her language ability gives rise to a sensitive period Sensitive Period optimal time for specific development there is a best time for something to occur but it may still occur even if its not at the optimal time just not as good only the degree of success variesbc organismits mother are linked thru the placenta a mothers eating habits drug usephysical health amoung other things can affect prenatal developmenthave longterm health consequences too muchlittle weight gainloss during gestation is associated with a variety of birthing complications guidelines for healthy gestation weight are based on prepregnancy BMIDeveloping fetus needs a variety of essential nutrients severe malnutrition increases the risk of birth complications s neurological defects for the new born Prenatal malnutrition may have negative effects decades after a childs birthLow birth weight is associated with an increased risk of heart diseasediabetes in middle adulthood Most drugs consumed by a pregnant woman can pass thru the membranes of the placenta stTeratogens monster producing agents 1 trimester is the most vulnerable o Hormones critical period that shape organisms genderTestosterone male sex organs Estrogen female sex organso Thalidomide phocomelia disruption of the development of growing limbs during the prenatal period thus shortening the limbo Nicotine during the prenatal period is correlated with low birth weighto Babies of heroin users are born addicted to narcotics leading to an increased risk of early death to prematurity birth defects etco Prenatal pot use is linked to disturbances in executive functioning in the prefrontal part of the braino All recreational drugs can be harmful sediatives narcoticscocaine being particularly dangerouso Fetal alcohol syndrome is a collection of congenital inborn problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancyTypical problems include microcephaly small head heart defects irritablilitydelayed motormental development Fetus is defenceless against infections bc its immune system matures late in the prenatal period o Placenta screens out aof infection agents but not all
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