PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes -Subtractive Color, Cochlea, Complex Differential Form

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5 Apr 2012

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-Medical model: proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behaviour as a disease
-pathology: refers to manifestations of disease
-medical concepts such as diagnosis, etiology, and prognosis have proven valuable in the
treatment and study of abnormality
-Diagnosis: involves distinguishing one illness from another.
-Etiology: refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness
-Prognosis: a forecast about the probable course of an illness
-antonyms such as normal versus abnormal and mental health versus mental illness imply that
people can be divided neatly into two distinct groups: those who are normal and those who are
-stereotypes of psychological disorders: they are incurable, people with them are often violent
and dangerous, they behave in bizarre ways and are very different from normal people
-epidemiology: the study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population
-prevalence: refers to the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified
time period
-anxiety disorders: a class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and
-generalized anxiety disorder: marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any
specific threat
-phobic disorder: marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that
presents no realistic danger
-panic disorder: characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur
suddenly and unexpectedly
-agoraphobia: a fear of going out to public places
-obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD): marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of
unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsion)
-One key predictor of vulnerability that emerged in a recent review of the relevant research is
the intensity of one’s reaction at the time of the traumatic event
-concordance rate: indicates the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit
the same disorder
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-many anxiety responses may be acquired through classical conditioning and maintained
through operant conditioning
-psychological diseases involve genuine physical ailments caused in part by psychological
factors, especially reactions to stress
-somatoform disorders: physical ailments that cannot be fully explained by organic conditions
and are largely due to psychological factors
-somatization disorder: marked by a history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be
psychological in origin
-conversion disorder: characterized by a significant loss of physical function (with no apparent
organic basis), usually in a single organ system
-hypochondriasis (hypochondria): characterized by excessive preoccupation with health
concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illness
-dissociative disorders: a class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their
consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity
-dissociative amnesia: sudden loss of memory of important personal information that is too
extensive to be due to normal forgetting
-dissociative fugue: in this people lose their memory of their entire lives, along with their sense
of personal identity
-dissociative identity disorder (DID): involves the coexistence in one person of two or more
largely complete, and usually very different, personalities. Used to be known as multiple
personality disorder
-mood disorders: a class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that
may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes
-people with unipolar disorder experience emotional extremes at just one end of the mood
continuum, as they are troubled only by depression. People with bipolar disorder are
vulnerable to emotional extremes at both ends of the mood continuum, going through periods
of both depression and mania (excitement and elation)
-major depressive disorder: people show persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss
of interest in previous sources of pleasure
-dysthymic disorder: consists of chronic depression that is insufficient in severity to justify
diagnosis of a major depressive episode
-bipolar disorder (formerly known as manic depressive disorder): characterized by the
experience of one or more manic episodes as well as periods of depression
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-cyclothymic disorder: people are given a diagnosis of this when they exhibit chronic but
relatively mild symptoms of bipolar disturbance
-seasonal affective disorder (SAD): a type of depression that follows a seasonal pattern
-postpartum depression: a type of depression that sometimes occurs after childbirth
-schizophrenia means “split mind”
-schizophrenic disorders: a class of disorders marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized
speech, and deterioration of adaptive behaviour
-delusions: false beliefs that are maintained even though they clearly are out of touch with
-in delusions of grandeur, people maintain that they are famous or important
-hallucinations: sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real, external stimulus or are
gross distortions of perceptual input
-paranoid schizophrenia: dominated by delusions of persecution, along with delusions of
-catatonic schizophrenia: marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity
to random motor activity
-disorganized schizophrenia: a particularly severe deterioration of adaptive behaviour is seen
such as emotional indifference, frequent incoherence, virtually complete social withdrawal,
aimless babbling and giggling
-undifferentiated schizophrenia: marked by idiosyncratic mixtures of schizophrenic symptoms
-negative symptoms: involve behavioural deficits, such as flattened emotions, social
withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech
-positive symptoms: involve behavioural excesses or peculiarities such as hallucinations,
delusions, bizarre behaviour, and wild flights of ideas
-expressed emotion (EE): is the degree to which a relative of a schizophrenic patient displays
highly critical or emotionally overinvolved attitudes toward the patient
-personality disorders: a class of disorders marked by extreme, inflexible personality traits that
cause subjective distress of impaired social and occupational functioning
-antisocial personality disorder: marked by impulsive, callous, manipulative, aggressive, and
irresponsible behaviour that reflects a failure to accept social norms
-automatism: idea that you should not be held responsible if you had no control over your
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