Chapter 12.docx

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5 Apr 2012
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Chapter 12
- Psychodynamic theories include work of Sigmund Freud, unconscious
- The ‘id’ is the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the
pleasure principle
o Reservoir of psychic energy
o Houses raw biological urges to eat, sleep
- The id operates according to the ‘pleasure principle’. Which demands immediate gratification of
its urges
- The ‘ego’ is the decision making component of personality that operates according to the reality
o Desires for immediate satisfaction and external social world
o Guided by the ‘reality principle’ which seeks to delay gratification of the ids urges until
appropriate e outlets and situations can be found
o ‘Behaving properly’
- The superego is the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about
what represents right and wrong
o Emerges around the ages of 3-5
- Conscious consists of whatever ones is aware of at a particular point in time
- Preconscious contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be
- Unconscious contains thoughts, memories, desires that are well below the surface of conscious
awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior
- Freud believes peoples lives are dominated by conflict, ego and id conflict each other as well
- Sexual and aggressive urges cannot be achieved in a daily human situation
- Psychosexual stages are developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave
their mark on adult personality
- Fixation is a failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected
- Oedipal complex, children manifest erotically tinged desires for their opposite sex parent,
accompanied by feeling of hostility toward their same-sex parent
- Personal unconscious houses material that is not within ones conscious awareness because it
has been repressed or forgotten
- The collective unconscious is a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from peoples
ancestral past
- Archetypes are emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning
- Introverts attend to be preoccupied with the internal world of their own thoughts, feelings and
o Aloof, contemplative
- Extraverts tend to be interested in the external world of people and things
o Outgoing, talkative
- Compensation involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing ones
- Self efficacy - One’s belief about one’s ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected
o When it is high, individuals feel confident that they can execute the responses necessary
to earn reinforcers
o When low, individuals worry about their own abilities
- Walter Mischel says humans act differently in different scenarios, we don’t always display the
same specific qualities
- Phenomenological approach assumes that ones has to appreciate individuals’ personal,
subjective experiences to truly understand their behavior
- Incongruence is the degree of disparity between ones self-concept and ones actually experience
- Self-actualization, the need to fulfill ones potential; it is the highest need in Maslow’s pyramid
- Self-actualizing persons are people with exceptionally healthy personalities, marked by
continued personal growth
- Extraversion sociable, assertive
- Neuroticism anxious, tense
- Psychoticism being egocentric, impulsive, cold, anti social
- Personality is shaped to some degree by hereditary factors