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York University
PSYC 1010
Heather Jenkin

PSYCH1010 PERSONALITY CHAPTER FOURTEEN WHAT IS PERSONALITY? People seem to behave somewhat consistently over time & across different situations. Notion of personality traits consistency becomes greater as we enter adulthood Personality: distinctive & relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, & acting that characterize a person's responses to life situations. Thoughts, feelings, & actions that reflect a individual's personality have 3 characteristics. 1. Components of identity that distinguish that person from other people. 2. Behaviours are viewed as caused by internal rather than environmental factors. 3. Person's behaviours seem to fit together, suggesting an inner personality that guides & directs behaviour FREUD'S PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY Treating conversion hysteria convinced him that their symptoms were related to painful memories & feelings that seemed to have been repressed/out of awareness. Unconscious part of the mind exerts great influence on behaviour. Conducted an extensive self-analysis based on his own dreams. Based theory on careful clinical observation & constantly sought to expand it Psychoanalysis: theory of personality, approach to studying the mind & method for treating psychological disorders. Psychic Energy and Mental Events Inspired by hydraulic models of 19th-century physics: exchanges and releases of physical energy, Freud considered personality to be an energy system Instinctual drives generate psychic energy, which powers the mind & constantly presses for either direct/indirect release. Conscious mind mental events that we are presently aware of. Preconscious memories, thoughts, feelings & images that we are unaware of at the moment but that can be called into conscious awareness. Freud believed these areas are dwarfed in both size & importance by the unconscious mind, dynamic realm of wishes, feelings & impulses that lies beyond our awareness. The Structure of Personality Freud divided personality into 3 separate but interacting structures: id, ego & superego. Id: unconscious mind, innermost core of personality, only structure present at birth, basis of psychic energy, no direct contact with reality& works in irrational manner. Effective to the pleasure principle, seeks immediate gratification/ release, regardless of normal considerations & environmental realities. Ego: conscious level; operates to the reality principle. Tests reality to decide when & under what conditions the id can safely discharge its impulses & satisfy its needs. Superego (moral arm of personality): developed by age of 4/5, source for values & ideals of society. With development of superego, self-control takes over from 1 | P a g ePSYCH1010 PERSONALITY CHAPTER FOURTEEN external controls of rewards and punishments, Moralistic goals take precedence over realistic ones, regardless of potential cost to the individual. Ego is squarely in eye of a psychic storm. Must achieve compromise between demands of id, constraints of superego, & demands of reality. Called the executive of the personality. Conflict, Anxiety, and Defence When ego confronts impulses that threaten to get out of control/faced with dangers from environment, anxiety results. Anxiety serves as danger signal, motivates ego to deal with problem at hand. When realistic strategies are ineffective in anxiety, ego may resort to defence mechanisms that deny/distort reality. Psychoanalysts believe that repression where ego keeps the lid on the id. Ego uses some energy to prevent anxiety-arousing memories, feelings & impulses from entering consciousness. Repressed thoughts & wishes remain in unconscious, striving for release, may be expressed indirectly (slips of the tongue/dreams) Freud described several defence mechanisms, primary interest was in repression. Repression An active defensive process through which anxiety-arousing impulses or memories are pushed into the unconscious mind. A person who was sexually abused in childhood develops amnesia for the event.
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