PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Electroconvulsive Therapy, Tardive Dyskinesia, Mania

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7 Apr 2012
CHAPTER 15: Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Psychotherapy- refers to all the diverse approaches used in the treatment of mental disorders and
psychological problems
- professional treatment by someone with special training
Breuer: speculated that talking things through, enables a person to drain off bottled-up emotions that
cause symptoms of mental illness
Freud: applied this insight to other patients, and his success led to the process of psychoanalysis
Psychotherapists use many treatment methods, of which can be classified into 3 major categories…
1. Insight Therapies: engage in complex verbal interactions
2. Behaviour Therapies: direct efforts to alter problematic responses and maladaptive behaviour
3. Biomedical Therapies: interventions into a person’s biological functioning
The therapeutic triad = therapists + treatments + clients
(The greatest diversity of all is seen among the clients)
2 types of Psychologists that may provide therapy…
1. Clinical psychologist- training emphasizes the treatment of full-fledged disorders
2. Counselling psychologists- training is slanted toward the treatment of everyday adjustment
Psychologists- use either insight or behavioural approaches
Psychiatrists- physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
- more likely to use behavioural techniques and less likely to use psychoanalytic methods
- devote more time to relatively severe disorders
…involve verbal interactions intended to enhance clients’ self-knowledge and thus promote healthful
changes in personality and behaviour
Psychoanalysis- an insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives and
defenses through techniques such as free association and transference
- Freud believed that neurotic problems are caused by unconscious conflicts left over from early
- Inner conflicts = battles between the id, ego and superego
- Theorized that people use defense mechanisms to avoid confronting these conflicts
The therapeutic procedures used in psychoanalysis…
Free association- clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with
as little censorship as possible
- these associations are studied for cues about what is going on in the client’s unconscious
Dream Analysis- the therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the client’s dreams; “the royal road to
the unconscious” – Freud
(Freud’s view of the roots of disorders)
Intrapsychic conflict (id, ego, superego) Anxiety Reliance of defense mechanisms
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Interpretation- refers to the therapist’s attempt to explain the inner significance of the client’s thoughts,
feelings, memories and behaviours
Resistance- refers to largely unconscious defensive maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of
- clients don’t want to face up the painful, disturbing conflicts that they have buried in their
- reluctant to consult their real problems
Transference- occurs when clients unconsciously start relating to their therapist in ways that mimic
critical relationships in their lives
- the client transfers conflicting feelings about important people onto the therapist
- Freud: once clients recognize the unconscious sources of conflicts, they can resolve these
conflicts and discard their neurotic defenses
Psychodynamic approaches to therapy- the decedents of psychoanalysis…
1. Client-Centred Therapy: an insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional
climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy
o Carl Rogers: personal distress is due to inconsistency or “incongruence” between a
person’s self-concept and reality
o Incongruence- makes people threatened by realist feedback about themselves
Believe affection Need to distort relatively
from others shortcoming to feel incongruent Recurrent
is conditional worthy of affection self-concept Anxiety
Defensive behaviour protects
inaccurate self-concept
o Therapeutic Climate: the process of therapy is not as important as the emotional climate
in which the therapy takes place
o To create an atmosphere of emotional support, these 3 conditions must be supplied:
genuineness, unconditioned positive regard and empathy
o Therapeutic Process: the therapist provides feedback to help clients sort out their feelings
2. Cognitive Therapy: is an insight therapy that emphasizes recognizing and changing negative
thoughts and maladaptive beliefs
- Aaron Beck: self-instructional training- clients are taught to develop and use verbal statements
that help them cope with difficult contexts
- goal is to change the way client’s think use more reasonable standards of evaluation
Negative Thinking…
- blame setbacks on personal inadequacies increased vulnerability to
- focus selectively on negative events depression
- make unduly pessimistic projections about future
- draw negative conclusions about personal worth
3. Group Therapy: is the simultaneous treatment of several clients in a group
- came to be after WW2 and aftermath
- participants essentially function as therapists for one another acceptance and moral support
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