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Chapter 14

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PSYC 1010
Gerry Goldberg

Chapter 14 Psychological DisordersPosttraumatic stress disorder PTPD Abnormal Behaviour Myths Realities and ControversiesThe Medical Model Applied to Abnormal Behaviour The Medical Modelproposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behaviour as a diseaseIf there was abnormal behaviour in the past they were thought to be possessed by demons etcBut not abnormal behaviour is seen with more sympathy than hate or fearThomas Szasz said that there is disease and illness only to the body but no mental illnessThe medical model is just an analogy Diagnosisinvolves distinguishing one illness from anotherEtiologyrefers to the apparent causation and developmental history of illnessPrognosisa forecast about the probable course of an illnessThese medically based concepts have widely shared meanings that allow clinicians researchers and the public to understand abnormal behaviourCriteria of Abnormal Behaviour 1Deviance o People are often said to have a disorder because their behaviour deviates from what their society considers acceptable o Whats normal is varied from one culture to another but if the behaviour is not consistent its said to be an illness2 Maladaptive behaviour o Their everyday adaptive behaviour is impaired o Diagnosis for substanceuse drug disorders starts to interfere with everyday life3 Personal distress o Based on individuals report of great personal distresso Usually for depression or anxiety disordersAs long as one criterion is met they are considered to have a disorderPeople are judged to have psychological disorders when their behaviour becomes extremely deviant maladaptive andor distressedStereotypes of Psychological Disorders 1 Psychological disorders are incurable o Theres only a few mentally ill people that treatment failed o There are people that get better either spontaneously or through formal treatment o Majority of people that improve lead a normal life even the sever psychological disorders can be treated successfully2 People with psychological disorders are often violent and dangerous o Only a modest association has been found between mental illness and violence o Strongest predictor of violence was past violence and there was no steady proof that psychological disorders simple by substance abuse are a major risk of violence once you control past history of violence3 People with psychological disorders behave in bizarre ways and different from normal people o This is true in small minority of cases involving severe disorders o Its about the border line of whos normal or abnormalPsychodiagnosis The Classification of Disorders The American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM o Described about 100 disorders o Prior to 1952 guidelines were vague and informal o Second edition 1968guidelines were sketchyo Third edition 1980diagnostics criteria weremore explicit concrete and detailedIntroduced multiaxial system of classification asks judgments on 5 dimensions or axes o Fourth edition 1994 and currentdescribes 3x as many types of psychological disorders than the first editionThe Prevalence of Psychological Disorders Epidemiologythe study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a populationPrevalencerefers to the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time period oof people who endure a specific disorder at any time of their livesMost 68 of people who reported symptoms of a specific disorder did not seek helpCosts of these disorders are expensive costs for health system are also substantialAnxiety Disorders Anxiety happens to everyone its normal but for some people it becomes a chronic problemAnxiety disordersclass of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxietyGeneralized Anxiety Disorder Generalized anxiety disorderis marked by a chronic high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threatSometimes called freefloating anxiety because its nonspecificPeople with this disorder worry constantly about yesterdays mistake or tomorrows problemsThey worry about minor matters related to family finances work and personal illnessThey hope their worrying will help to ward off negative events but they still worry about how much they worryThey dread decisions and brood over them endlesslyTheir anxiety is usually accompanied by physical symptoms like trembling muscle tension diarrhea dizziness faintness sweating and heart palpitationsSeen more frequently in females than males
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