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Chapter 12

CHAPTER 12 DEVELOPMENT OVER THE LIFESPAN

9 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Heather Jenkin

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CHAPTER TWELVE: DEVELOPMENT OVER THE LIFE SPAN DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: ISSUES & METHODS Nature & nurture Critical &sensitive periods. o Critical periodage experiences must occur for development to proceed normally o Sensitive period optimal age range for certain experiences Continuity versus discontinuity Stability versus change. Cross-sectional design:ompare people of different ages at the same point in time. Longitudinal design:epeatedly tests same cohort as it grows older. Sequential design: combines cross-sectional & longitudinal approaches. PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Prenatal development: 3 stages of physical growth. Germinal stage: first 2 weeks of development, 1 sperm fertilizes female egg o Zygote: fertilized egg nd th Embryonic stage: end of week-8 week after conception, cell mass now is called embryo. o Placenta: membranes allow nutrients to pass from mother's blood to umbilical cord. Umbilical cord: blood vessels that carry nutrients & oxygen to embryo, waste products back from embryo to mother TH 9 week embryo: fetus. o Fetal stage: until birth, muscles become stronger & bodily systems continue to develop. o At 24 weeks eyes open, 28 weeks fetus attains age of viability GENETICS AND SEX DETERMINATION TDF (testis determining factor) gene: triggers male sexual development. o 6-8 weeks after conception the TDF gene initiates development of testes. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES Teratogens: environmental agents that cause abnormal prenatal development. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): abnormalities that results from prenatal exposure to alcohol o FAS children have facial abnormalities and small, malformed brains Smoking risk miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight. 2nd-hand linked to low birth weight & risk of respiratory infections Longitudinal & cross-sectional for changes heart rate & body movements with vibrator, on mother's tummy, turned on/off. Reliable fetal body movements 27 wks after conception, with fetal age. Heart rate acceleration fetuses 29 wks fetal age, responses remained high until birth. Newborns of mothers who consumed certain foods & drinks also preferred those foods In Review Developmental psychology: process of aging. Nature & nurture, Critical &sensitive periods, continuity vs. discontinuity, stability vs. change Cross-sectional: people of different age groups at single point in time. Longitudinal: repeatedly tests same age group as grows older. Sequential design: several groups at 1 point in time & again when older. Prenatal development involves the zygote, embryonic, and fetal stages. 23rd chromosome in mother's egg cell always is X chromosome. If 23rd chromosome in father's sperm cell is X, Child will be female; if Y, the child will male. Behavioural responses and learning begin during the fetal stage. THE AMAZING NEWBORN William James suggested newborn's passive, disorganized, empty mind. View is not tenable Newborn Sensation and Perception Preferential looking procedure: infants' visual preferences. Infants preferred complex patterns, such as realistic/scrambled drawings of human face, to simple patterns and solid colours 1 | P a g e Newborn Learning Visual habituation procedure: stimulus presented repeatedly, infant looking time declines o Newborns habituated to white lights recovered visual interest when viewed lights of similar intensities but different dominant wavelengths o Auditory habituation procedure to study infant memory. Head-turning toward off- centred, recorded speech sound. After 16 presentations, infants stopped turning o Rapidly learn to associate sounds with objects, including the mother's face and voice Newborns can learn through classical & operant conditioning & imitation. SENSORY-PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT Visual field in each eye expands to almost adult size by 6 months age, acuity 20/800 at birth to 20/100 by 6 months of age, adult levels by about 4 years of age o 3-4 months of age, infant pattern perception organized to certain Gestalt principles o Turn toward sounds at birth disappears in 2nd month of life, returns 4-5 months of age o Changes in adult speech sounds differentiate one word from another 1-2 months of age. 6-month look longer to hear pitch change in tones adults find pleasant than pitch change adults rate as unpleasant o 2 months of age, infants remember short melody after listening to it repeated 15 times PHYSICAL, BRAIN, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT Maturation: genetically programmed biological process, governs growth, bodies & movement Cephalocaudal principle: tendency for development to proceed in a head-to-foot direction. Proximodistal principle: development begins innermost parts of body, toward outermost parts The Young Brain Newborn's brain 25% of adult weight. o 6 months of age = 50% adult weight. o 5-year-olds = 90% of adult size, brain maturation continues. Motor Development Reflexes: automatic, inborn behaviours elicited by specific stimulipresent at birth. o Stepping reflex drops out after 1-2 months, reappears around 12 months of age Environmental and Cultural Influences Newborn rats in enriched environment develop heavier brains, larger neurons, more synaptic connections, and greater amounts of brain neurotransmitters that enhance learning Physical touch affects growth in infancy. o Depriving rats pups of normal physical contact with mothers stunts development, Experience also can influence basic motor skill development Biology sets limits on environmental influences. Environmental influences can be powerful. Biological and environmental factors interact. In Review Newborns have poor sensory acuity, but can distinguish between different visual patterns, speech sounds, odours & tastes. Display perceptual preferences; learn through classical & operant conditioning Cephalocaudal: tendency for development to proceed in head-to-foot direction. Proximodistal: development begins along innermost parts of body, continues toward the outermost parts. Experience is critical for normal development Piaget's Stage Model Believed cognitive development results from interplay of maturation & experience, viewed children as natural-born scientists who actively explore & seek to understand their world. Assimilation: new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas Accommodation: new experiences cause existing schemas to change 2 | P a g eSensorimotor stage Birth-age 2, understand world through sensory experiences & physical interactions with objects. o Object permanence: understanding object continues to exist when no longer seen o Plan, form simple concepts, solve problems mentally, communicate thoughts to others. Preoperational stage Age 2, represent world symbolically in words & mental images, dont understand basic mental operations or rules. Does not understand conservation: basic properties of objects stay the same Thinking at this age displays irreversibility: difficult for them to reverse an action mentally. Exhibit centration; focus on one aspect of the situation, such as the height of a liquid. Egocentrism, difficulty in viewing the world from someone else's perspective Concrete operational stage 7-12 yrs, perform basic mental operations in problems involving tangible objects & situations. o Concept of reversibility, less centration, easily solved conservation problems o Difficulty with hypothetical problems/problems requiring abstract reasoning Formal operational stage 11-12 yrs, think logically about concrete & abstract problems, form hypotheses & test them. Piaget's universality principle General cognitive abilities in Piaget's four stages occur in same order across cultures Culture influences cognitive development. Early understanding of the physical world Stared longer at impossible events, suggesting they possessed rudimentary arithmetic abilities. o Suggests infants understand m
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