PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes -Mary Whiton Calkins, American Psychological Association, Leta Stetter Hollingworth

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Published on 17 Sep 2012
York University
PSYC 1010
of 17
Psychology: themes and variations
Chapter 1: The Evolution of psychology
The term psychology comes from greek psyche meaning soul and logos means
study of a subject
By the 18th century psychology meant “the study of the mind”
German professor Wilhelm wundt made psychology an independent disciple
rather than a branch of philosophy or physiology.
1879 the date of birth of psychology
Between 1883 and 1893 24 psychological research labs sprang up in the us and
End of 19th century G. Stanley hall was an important contributor in America
oHe established America’s first research centre lab at johns Hopkins
university in 1883
oLaunched America’s first psychology journal
oHe was the driving force behind the establishment of American
psychological association and was elected its president
Structuralism emerged through the leadership of Edward titchener
oStructuralism was born on the notion that the task of psychology is to
analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these
elements are related
oMost of their work concerned sensation and perception in vision, hearing
and touch
oIntrospection, the careful, systematic self observation of ones own
conscious experience
Functionalism emerged through the work of William James
oIt was based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function
or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure
oJames’s Principles of psychology became standard reading for
generations and is the most influential text in the history of psychology
oBelieved psychology is deeply embedded in a network of cultural and
intellectual influences
oJames noted that consciousness is a characteristic of our species hence
he argued that psychology should investigate the functions rather than the
structure of the consciousness
oConsciousness consists of continuous flow of thoughts
oHe called the flow Stream of consciousness
oFunctionalists were interested in how people adapt their behaviour to the
demands of the real world
oJames and Dewey investigated mental testing, patterns of development in
children, the effectiveness of educational practices and behavioural
differences between sexes
Margaret floy washburn was the first woman in the US to receive a PhD in
oWas the author of The Animal Mind
Leta Hollingworth did work on children’s intelligence and was influential in
debunking some of the theories current at the time that were proposed to explain
why women are “inferior” to men.
Mary Whiton Calkins first woman to serve as president of American
psychological Association
both schools of thought gradually faded away, functionalism fostered the
development of two descendants that have dominated modern psychology:
behaviourism and applied psychology
Behaviourism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific
psychology should study only observable behaviour!
oWatson was proposing that psychologists should:
Focus exclusively on behaviours that they could observe directly
He was redefining what scientific psychology should be about
To him the power of the scientific method rested on the idea of
Scientific claims can always be verified (or disproved) by anyone
who is able and willing to make the required observations
This power depends on studying things that can be observed
Psychology would have to give up consciousness as its subject
matter and become instead the science of behaviour
Behaviour refers to any overt(observable) response or activity by an organism
Watson believed psychologists can study anything that people do or say
(shopping, playing chess, eating, etc...) but they could not study scientifically the
thoughts, wishes and feelings that might accompany these observable
Watson also believed that behaviour is determined by environment and
experience rather than genetic inheritance
A Stimulus is any detectable input from the environment.
oCan range from light and sound waves to the words on a page or
advertisement on TV
oThe behavioural approach is often referred to as Stimulus Response
For two decades before Watson psychology was edging away from the study of
consciousness towards study of behaviour
Ivan Pavlov a Russian physiologist showed dogs could be trained to salivate in
response to an auditory stimulus such as a tone
oThis deceptively simple demonstration provided insight into how stimulus-
response bonds are formed
oExactly what behaviourists wanted to investigate
Behaviourism’s stimulus response approach contributed to the rise of animal
research in psychology
Behaviourists no longer needed to study human subjects
Many believed that animals were better subjects because experimental research
is often more productive if experiments can exert considerable control over their

Document Summary

Focus exclusively on behaviours that they could observe directly. He was rede ning what scienti c psychology should be about. To him the power of the scienti c method rested on the idea of veri ability. Scienti c claims can always be veri ed (or disproved) by anyone who is able and willing to make the required observations. This power depends on studying things that can be observed objectively. Psychology: for two decades before watson psychology was edging away from the study of consciousness towards study of behaviour. Important public recognition from psychology came when freud gave lectures at. Freedom and dignity: people are controlled by their environment, not by themselves, free will is an illusion, public popularity reached its greatest heights upon the publication of. Kg: most prominent architects of humanistic movement have been carl. Industrial and organizational psychology: educational and school psychology.