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PSYC1010 Book Notes 1,2,B.pdf

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Psychology: themes and variations Chapter 1: The Evolution of psychology The term psychology comes from greek psyche meaning soul and logos means study of a subject th By the 18 century psychology meant the study of the mind German professor Wilhelm wundt made psychology an independent disciple rather than a branch of philosophy or physiology. 1879 the date of birth of psychology Between 1883 and 1893 24 psychological research labs sprang up in the us and Canada End of 19 century G. Stanley hall was an important contributor in America o He established Americas rst research centre lab at johns Hopkins university in 1883 o Launched Americas rst psychology journal o He was the driving force behind the establishment of American psychological association and was elected its president Structuralism emerged through the leadership of Edward titchener o Structuralism was born on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related o Most of their work concerned sensation and perception in vision, hearing and touch o Introspection, the careful, systematic self observation of ones own conscious experience Functionalism emerged through the work of William James o It was based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure o Jamess Principles of psychology became standard reading for generations and is the most inuential text in the history of psychology KG o Believed psychology is deeply embedded in a network of cultural and intellectual inuences o James noted that consciousness is a characteristic of our species hence he argued that psychology should investigate the functions rather than the structure of the consciousness o Consciousness consists of continuous ow of thoughts o He called the ow Stream of consciousness o Functionalists were interested in how people adapt their behaviour to the demands of the real world o James and Dewey investigated mental testing, patterns of development in children, the effectiveness of educational practices and behavioural differences between sexes Margaret oy washburn was the rst woman in the US to receive a PhD in psychology o Was the author of The Animal Mind Leta Hollingworth did work on childrens intelligence and was inuential in debunking some of the theories current at the time that were proposed to explain why women are inferior to men. Mary Whiton Calkins rst woman to serve as president of American psychological Association both schools of thought gradually faded away, functionalism fostered the development of two descendants that have dominated modern psychology: behaviourism and applied psychology Behaviourism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientic psychology should study only observable behaviour o Watson was proposing that psychologists should: Focus exclusively on behaviours that they could observe directly He was redening what scientic psychology should be about To him the power of the scientic method rested on the idea of veriability KG Scientic claims can always be veried (or disproved) by anyone who is able and willing to make the required observations This power depends on studying things that can be observed objectively Psychology would have to give up consciousness as its subject matter and become instead the science of behaviour Behaviour refers to any overt(observable) response or activity by an organism Watson believed psychologists can study anything that people do or say (shopping, playing chess, eating, etc...) but they could not study scientically the thoughts, wishes and feelings that might accompany these observable behaviours. Watson also believed that behaviour is determined by environment and experience rather than genetic inheritance A Stimulus is any detectable input from the environment. o Can range from light and sound waves to the words on a page or advertisement on TV o The behavioural approach is often referred to as Stimulus Response Psychology For two decades before Watson psychology was edging away from the study of consciousness towards study of behaviour Ivan Pavlov a Russian physiologist showed dogs could be trained to salivate in response to an auditory stimulus such as a tone o This deceptively simple demonstration provided insight into how stimulus- response bonds are formed o Exactly what behaviourists wanted to investigate Behaviourisms stimulus response approach contributed to the rise of animal research in psychology Behaviourists no longer needed to study human subjects Many believed that animals were better subjects because experimental research is often more productive if experiments can exert considerable control over their subjects KG Gestalt psychology theorists were primarily concerned with perception o Argued that psychology should continue to study conscious experience rather than behaviour Sigmund Freud contemplated the mysteries of unconscious mental processes. o Approach to psychology grew out of his efforts to treat mental disorders o Treated people with irrational fears, obsessions and anxieties with an innovative procedure he called Psychoanalysis o Gathered material by looking inward and examining his own anxieties, conicts and desires The Unconscious contains thoughts, memories and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great inuence on behaviour o Based his concepts on seemingly meaningless slips of the tongue and the dreams of the patients o Concluded that psychological disturbances are largely caused by personal conicts existing at an unconscious level Psychoanalytic Theory attempts to explain personality, motivation and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour. o Proposed that behaviour is greatly inuenced by how people cope with sexual urges Attracted prominent followers such as Carl Jung and Alfred Adler Important public recognition from psychology came when Freud gave lectures at Clark university Psychoanalytic theory was widely known by 1920 Met with resistance in psych because it conicted with the spirits of the times and many psychologists were turning to observable behaviour. B.F. Skinner was emerging as a central gure in behaviourism and the history of psychology o Inuenced by Watsons methodological behaviourism and by pavlovs work on conditioned reexes KG
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