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{Module 1} {Module 1} The {Module 1} The MStory of PsychologyStory of PsychologyThe Story of Psychology

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

PSYC 1010 {Module 1} The Story of Psychology Sept 5th, 2012 “Our brain is by far the most complex physical object known to us in the entire cosmos…” Owen Gingerich (2006) Harvard astronomer  Psychology is a science that seeks to answer such questions about us all-how and why we think, feel, and act as we do Psychological Science Is Born Wilhelm Wundt – established the first psychology laboratory in the University of Leipzig, Germany. Edward Bradford Tichener – Tichener used introspection to search for the mind’s structural elements. William James and Mary Whiton Calkins – James mentored Calkins who became a pioneering memory researcher and the first woman to be president of the American Psychological Association.  James assumed that thinking, like smelling, developed because it was adaptive: contributing to our ancestors’ survival  Consciousness serves as a function , enabling us to consider our past, adjust to our present, and plan our future o James was a functionalist, encouraging explorations of emotions, memories, willpower, habits, etc. Margaret Floy Washburn – First woman to receive a psychology PH.D. Synthesizing animal behavior research The Animal Mind Behaviorism : view that psychology should be 1) Should be an objective science, that 2) Studies behaviour without reference to mental processes Most research psychologists today agree with 1) but not with 2) Humanistic Psychology  Historically significant perspective emphasizing the growth potential of healthy people What event defined the start of scientific psychology? Answer: Scientific psychology began in Germany in 1879 when Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory . Why did introspection fail as a method for understanding how the mind works? PSYC 1010 {Module 1} The Story of Psychology Sept 5th, 2012 Answer: People’s self-reports varied, depending on the experience and the person’s intelligence and verbal ability. _________ used introspection to define the mind’s makeup; _______ focused on how mental processes enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish. Answer: Structuralism; functionalism Psychological Science Develops  For Wundt and Tichener, psychology was defined as “the science of mental life”  Watson and later Skinner dismissed introspection, redefining psychology as “the scientific study of observable behavior”behaviorists o You cannot observe a sensation, a feeling, or a thought, but you can record people’s behaviour as they respond to situations John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner – championed psychology as the science of behavior and demonstrated conditioned responses on a baby who became famous as “Little Albert” B.F. Skinner – leading behaviorist rejecting introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior Sigmund Freud – personality theorist and therapist influenced humanity’s self-understanding Two major forces in psychology well into the 1960’s: behaviorism and Freudian psychology. Humanistic Psychologists (Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow) found Freudian psychology and behaviorism too limiting.  Drew attention to ways that current environmental influences can nurture or limit growth potential & to importance of needs for love and acceptance Cognitive Revolution – rebellion of new group of psychologists during 1960’s  Cognitive psychology  scientifically explores the ways we perceive, process, and remember information  Interdisciplinary study enriching understanding of the brain activity underlying mental activity Today’s def’n of psychology: “Science of behavior and mental processes”  Behaviour = anything an organism does, an observable and recordable action o Yelling, smiling, blinking, talking, sweating  Mental processes = internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior o Sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, feelings PSYC 1010 {Module 1} The Story of Psychology Sept 5th, 2012 From the 1920’s through the 1960’s, the two major forces in psychology were behaviorism and Freudian psychology. How did the cognitive revolution affect the field of psychology? Answer: It recaptured the field’s early interest in mental processes and made them legitimate topics for scientific study. Contemporary Psychology Cognitive neuroscience: the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language) Psychology: the science of behavior and mental processes Nature-nurture issue: controversy contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological
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