false

Textbook Notes
(368,316)

Canada
(161,798)

York University
(12,828)

Psychology
(3,584)

PSYC 2021
(16)

Matthew Sigal
(1)

Chapter 2

Unlock Document

Psychology

PSYC 2021

Matthew Sigal

Winter

Description

Chapter 2 Frequency Distribution
Monday, January 14, 2013
2.1 Introduction to frequency Distribution
Results from a study usually consist of pages of information of data ex.
Measurements, scores etc. You as a researcher want organize the information so
that any patterns can be seen. That is where descriptive statistics come into play.
Common way to organize the data is to place the scores in a frequency distribution.
Frequency Distribution takes disorganized sets of scores and places them in order
from high to low, grouping individuals who all have the same score
- ex. If the highest score is X=10 the frequency distribution would group
together all the 10’s, 9’s
- It allows you to see “at glance “ the entire set of scores
- Shows whether the scores are on the high or low side, whether its
concentrated in one area, it gives you the bigger picture
- Allows you to see the location of individual scores relative to the other scores
Frequency Distribution can be a table or a graph, but represents two elements
- Set of categories that make up the original measurement scale 10’s, 9’s
- A record of frequency or number of individuals in each category ex how many
people scored 10
2.2 Frequency Distribution Tables
Presents a measurement scale by listing the different measurement categories (X
values) from highest to lowest beside it you give its frequency
X f
10 2
9 5
8 7
7 3
6 2
5 0
4 1 All possible values are listed, notice that no one had a score of X=5 but its value is
included. With ordinal, interval or ratio scale the categories are listed in order
(usually from highest to lowest). For a nominal scale they are listed in any order
- Because of the organization you can see that only 2 got perfect and 1 got
four
- The X values in fd table represent the scale of measurement(what is being
measured) not the actual scores ex 10 is used one time but 2 people have
this score and 0 people have X=5
- If you add up all the frequencies you will obtain the total number of
individuals
- ∑f = N
Obtaining ∑X from a frequency distribution Table
When it is necessary to perform calculations for scores that have been organized if
a fd table, take the individual scores out then you can begin any computations
Ex
X f
5 1
4 2
3 3
2 3
If the question says ∑X2--you take all the numbers square them and add them all
up (ref 40)
Proportions and Percentages
Beside the use of the two columns used for frequency distribution you can
incorporate an additional two that will also describe the distribution of score. That
would include proportion and distribution
- Proportion- measures(gives you) the fraction of the total group (of people-in
this case) that is associated with each score ex. 2 individuals had X-4 thus
you would have 2/10 - Proportion=p= f/N
- Because proportions describe the frequency (f) in relation to the total number
(N) (f/N) it is often called relative frequencies
Researchers may also describe a distribution score with percentages ex instructor
might say 15% of the class earned A’s while 23% earned B’s. To compute the
percentage associated with each score you must first find the proportion (p) and
then multiply by 100
Ex proportion 1/10 or 0.10 multiply 100= percentage of 10
Grouped Frequency Distribution Tables
Sometimes your data will cover a wide range of values, it will be unr

More
Less
Related notes for PSYC 2021

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study

documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view

Continue

Continue
OR

By registering, I agree to the
Terms
and
Privacy Policies

Already have an account?
Log in

Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.