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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Frequency Distribution Monday.doc

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PSYC 2021
Matthew Sigal

Chapter 2 Frequency Distribution Monday, January 14, 2013 2.1 Introduction to frequency Distribution Results from a study usually consist of pages of information of data ex. Measurements, scores etc. You as a researcher want organize the information so that any patterns can be seen. That is where descriptive statistics come into play. Common way to organize the data is to place the scores in a frequency distribution. Frequency Distribution takes disorganized sets of scores and places them in order from high to low, grouping individuals who all have the same score - ex. If the highest score is X=10 the frequency distribution would group together all the 10’s, 9’s - It allows you to see “at glance “ the entire set of scores - Shows whether the scores are on the high or low side, whether its concentrated in one area, it gives you the bigger picture - Allows you to see the location of individual scores relative to the other scores Frequency Distribution can be a table or a graph, but represents two elements - Set of categories that make up the original measurement scale 10’s, 9’s - A record of frequency or number of individuals in each category ex how many people scored 10 2.2 Frequency Distribution Tables Presents a measurement scale by listing the different measurement categories (X values) from highest to lowest beside it you give its frequency X f 10 2 9 5 8 7 7 3 6 2 5 0 4 1 All possible values are listed, notice that no one had a score of X=5 but its value is included. With ordinal, interval or ratio scale the categories are listed in order (usually from highest to lowest). For a nominal scale they are listed in any order - Because of the organization you can see that only 2 got perfect and 1 got four - The X values in fd table represent the scale of measurement(what is being measured) not the actual scores ex 10 is used one time but 2 people have this score and 0 people have X=5 - If you add up all the frequencies you will obtain the total number of individuals - ∑f = N Obtaining ∑X from a frequency distribution Table When it is necessary to perform calculations for scores that have been organized if a fd table, take the individual scores out then you can begin any computations Ex X f 5 1 4 2 3 3 2 3 If the question says ∑X2--you take all the numbers square them and add them all up (ref 40) Proportions and Percentages Beside the use of the two columns used for frequency distribution you can incorporate an additional two that will also describe the distribution of score. That would include proportion and distribution - Proportion- measures(gives you) the fraction of the total group (of people-in this case) that is associated with each score ex. 2 individuals had X-4 thus you would have 2/10 - Proportion=p= f/N - Because proportions describe the frequency (f) in relation to the total number (N) (f/N) it is often called relative frequencies Researchers may also describe a distribution score with percentages ex instructor might say 15% of the class earned A’s while 23% earned B’s. To compute the percentage associated with each score you must first find the proportion (p) and then multiply by 100 Ex proportion 1/10 or 0.10 multiply 100= percentage of 10 Grouped Frequency Distribution Tables Sometimes your data will cover a wide range of values, it will be unr
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