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PSYC 2021 (16)
Chapter 1-3

chapter 1-3

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PSYC 2021
Edward Haltrecht

12 Populations and SamplesA population is the set of all the individuals of interest in a particular studyA sample is a selected group of individuals selected from a population intended to represent the population in a research studyA variable is a characteristic or condition that changes or has different values from different individualsVariables differ from different individualsIn order to demonstrate changes in variables we make measurements of the variables being examinedDataMeasurements or observationsData SetA collection of measurements or observationsDatumA single measurement or observation also called a score or raw scoreWill also refer to populations or samples of scores Research involves measuring each individual to obtain a score Every sample or population of individuals produces a corresponding sample or population of scoresParameternumerical value describing a population ex The population averageStatisticnumerical value describing a sample ex The average scoreDifferent Statistical Procedures to Organize and Interpret data1Descriptive statisticsstatistical procedures that summarize organize and simplify data2Inferential statisticsmethods that use sample data to make general statements about a population allow us to study samples and make generalizations about the populations from which they were selected3Sampling errordiscrepancy or amount of error that exists between a sample population parameter14 VariablesMeasurementsConstructs internal characteristics that cannot be directly observed intelligence self esteem Useful for describing behaviourOperational definitiondefines a construct in terms of external behaviours that can be observed and measured ex Intelligence can be measured by performance on IQ tests
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