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Chapter 5

Chapter Five Notes.docx

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PSYC 2030
Krista Phillips

Chapter Five: • Self-report measures: reflect and verbally report on sensations and perceptions. It is also known as introspection • Standardized measures: like IQ tests. The measures were developed and are administered and scored according to certain rules, or standards to study subjective well-being • Issues with self-report data: 1. Dependability. A basic assumption of this is that people are being honest, but when people are being evaluated, they are often apprehensive and evasive. This is also known as evaluation apprehension 2. Right to privacy, so people have the right to hold back information 3. Whether research participants provide valid and reliable information (even unintentionally ) 4. Interpretation of individual scores. i.e. norm referenced : our own rating system may be misleading • Open ended items: offer you an opportunity to express your feelings. I.e. how do you feel? • Fixed choice items: also called structured, closed, or pre-coded. Like multiple choice or yes or no. • Projective tests: o Rorschach test o Thematic Apperception Test: Henry Murray. o Minnesota Multiphasic personality inventory • Rating scales: o most common are numerical and graphic kinds o they use cue words which are guiding labels  numerical scales: most popular of the three types • even extremely likely-not likely are numerical because each has a number associated with it  forced choice scales: • halo effect: occurs when the person doing the rating of someone forms a very favourable impression of the rate-e based on one central trait and extends that to their other characteristics  graphic scales: • Straight line resembling a thermometer, either horizontal or vertical. • Rating errors: o response biases or rater biases such as halo effect  leniency bias • rating someone who is familiar unrealistically in a positive manner • Overcome: give only one unfavourable option on a graphic scale and the rest a range of positive. o i.e. poor, fairly good, good, very good, excellent  central tendency bias • when respondents hesitate to give extreme ratings and instead cluster answers in the middle • Overcome: if you want a range of 5 points, expand to 7. If you want 7, expand to 9 • Extremely high or low can cause ceiling effect or floor effect and they will restrict the amount of change that can be produced
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