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Chapter 7

Research In Psychology: Methods and Design, 7th Edition. Chapter 7

6 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 2030
Rebecca Jubis

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Chapter 7  Experimental Design I: Single­Factor Designs  Single Factor – Two Levels  • Single­factor design: an experimental design with a single independent variable  • Independent groups design: a between­subjects design that uses a manipulated  independent variable and has at least two groups to which subjects are randomly assigned  • Matched groups design: a between­subjects design that uses a manipulated independent  variable and has at least two groups of participants; subjects are matched on some variable  assumed to affect the outcome before being randomly assigned to the groups  • Ex post facto design: subjects in the study are placed into the groups “after the fact” of their  already existing subject characteristics  o Attempt to make the groups as similar as possible with reference to other variables  o Random assignment is not possible  • Repeated­measures design: used when the independent variable is tested within subjects –  each participant in the study experiences each level of the independent variable  Between­Subjects, Single­factor Designs • Study comparing just two conditions (simple)  Research Example 9 – Two­Level Independent Groups design ­ Single factor with 2 levels:  ­ Investigated the relationship between insecurity and one’s materialist leanings (buy things because  of insecurities)  ­ Create insecurity in participants and see how they respond to questions about financial things  ­ Randomly assigned into 2 groups: 1 group wrote essay on their death, 2  wrote about music  ­ People talking about their death thought they’d make more money and spend more on leisure  activities Research Example 10 – Two­level Matched groups design  ­ Use matching procedure followed by random assignment when:  ­ A) they have a small # of subjects ­ B) they are concerned that some attribute of these subjects could affect the outcome ­ C) they have a good way of measuring that attribute  ­ Autistic children watched videos of other children and were given opportunity to imitate their  bndaviour (social skills)  ­ 2  group did not see  the videos, they just played ­ Used a matching procedure followed by random assignment for the 25 children in the study  • Interobserver reliability: the degree of agreement between 2 or more observers of the  same event  Research Example 11 – Two­Level Ex Post Facto Design  ­ Examines the effects of brain damage that results from an accident  ­ Investigated the abilities of 34 subjects with TBI to process and understand social exchanges  ­ Select subjects so the 2 groups would be as similar as possible, except for the brain damage ex,  education age ­ This is matching “AFTER THE FACT” ­ Groups watched social videos and were asked to identify certain behaviours  ­ Those with TBI were impaired in that ability  Within­Subjects, Single­Factor Designs  • any within­subjects design:  o requires fewer participants  o is more sensitive to small differences between means  o typically uses counterbalancing to control for order effects  • A within­subjects design with a single IV and 2 levels will counterbalance in one of 2 ways: o If subjects participate in each condition just once (complete counterbalancing) half = A  then B. Rest = B then A.  o If participants are tested more than once per condition (reverse counterbalancing) (ABBA)  • Another counterbalancing strategy for a study with 2 cond
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