Chapter 3 Research Methods.docx

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24 Apr 2012
Chapter 3 Research Methods
How do ethical guidelines in research function?
o Ethics: character or dispositions
Moral values evaluating behaviours
o Ethical guidelines:
Rules and and specifications to the conducting of a research
1. Respect for ppls autonomy- ppls independence prospective right as well as
ability to choose whether to take part or to continue in the study
Informed about what theyre getting into
2.must agree not to harm called nonmaleficence
And trying to maximize potential of the research-beneficience
3. Pursuit and promotion of justice
Burdens and benefits are distributed equally
4. Trust with research participants
5. Fostering of fidelity and integrity
Principle 1:What is informed consent and when it is used:
o Informed consent:
To get a written agreement of the proceedings
Sometimes impossible/sometimes counterproductive
o Placebo effect
In drugs use one drugged group and one control placebo group
Not told if receive or not
o Prospective participants
1. Informed about nature of study
2.potential risk
3.confidentiality procedures
4. Nature of cooperation and freedom to withdraw
o Sometimes need parental consent; ie understanding of signature
Principle 2:How are ethic reviews done and acted on?
o Institutional review board:
Detailed written proposal of planned research and evaluators
o Risk benefit analysis:
Oversight mechanism
Minimal risk-likelihood of minimal risk to participants in study
More than one raises a red flag
o Expedited review:
Evaluated research without undue delay
o Idealized risk benefit ethical evaluation:
Risk vs. Rewards of conducting the study
Irb held to a less rigorous standard of accountability than are researchers
Irbs may ignore potential benefits and use a risk analysis only
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