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Chapter 5

R.M chapter 5.docx

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York University
PSYC 2030
Krista Phillips

R.M. Chapter 5  Uses and limitations of self report: o Self report  Report and disclosing of own attitudes experience etc,..  Was called introspection  Fell out of favour o Standardized measures:  Measures feeling and such that are usually of self report base  Personality testing  Dependability an issue  Ppl may want to appear better than the rlly are  Issues1  1.Evaluation apprehension:  Anxiety can be lowered if asked to answer in private without watch  In survey research: the more assurance of confidentiality; more likely to discuss things they previously wouldn’t discuss  2.Right to privacy  Ppl may withhold truths  3. Doubt whether the participants can provide reliable and valid info for behavioural data  Ppl cant eval. Self without the ‘now’ affecting it  Ppl tend to overvalue self  Change over time  Seven sins of memory: o 1.absent mindedness, 2. Blocking out certain things, 3. Deterioration of details, 4. Misattributing, 5.unconscious biases, 6.human suggestibility to implanted ideas, 7. Imprints on mind never leaving  4. Interpretation of individual scores  Norm-refferenced: o Values of respondents in some specified pop o Comparing one way of rating to another an issue  May be hard to compare to norm; unless of random nature  Open ended/ fixed choice: o Open end:  Expression not Y/N  Advantages:  No suggestions  Approach explanatory  Increases understanding in person answering; own lang.  Disadvantages:  Time consuming  Elicit ramble; off topic answers  Hard to asses for reliability o Fixed end:  Y/N  Structured  Reverse ads/disadvantages from open q’s o Personality/projective tests:  OCEAN  Openness to experience, degree of imagination  Conscientiousness, degree of organization, throrough, reliable  Extraversion, degree of talkiveness, assertiveness  Agreeableness, degree of kindness, trust  Neuroticism, degree of nervousness, moodieness, tempera mentality o Projective test:  Rorschach test:  10 inkblots; open ended interpretation  Thematic appreciation test (Tat)  Pictures of card in different life contexts  Respondent make up a story  Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI)  Fixed choice format  Clinical scales  Numerical /forced choice/graphics o Rating scales- o Forced choice rating scale  Cue words:  Guiding labels in need of example for respondents o Numerical scales  Most common in research  Work with a sequence of defined numbers ie 1 vs 0 =yes vs no  Strongly vs weakly agreed/disagree  Most times use 0 as agree because its irrelevant to most studies objective o Halo effect:  Person doing the rating of the target forms a very favourable impression of the target person based on one central trait and extends it to other attributes  Numerical score could pile up; Forced choice not so o Graphic scales:  Line resembling a thermometer horizontally/ vertically  Bipolar-shows 2 extreme opposites  Unipolar-low to high amount of one trait  Rating errors: o Response biases/rater biases: o Leniency bias:  Judges ppl who are very similar or familiar o Central tendency bias:  When respondents hasitate to give extreme ratings and instead cluster around center choices o Celing effect/floor effect:  Restricts amou
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