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Chapter 6

R.M. chapter 6.docx

4 Pages

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PSYC 2030
Krista Phillips

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R.M. Chapter 6  Validity and Reliability o Validity:  shows how well the measure does what it purports to do o Criterion validity:  How well scores on a test correlated with the particular criterion for success used to asses it o Construct validity:  Insurance tghat we are measuring the concept or contrsuct, in question o Content validity:  How adequately it has sampled the universe of content it purports to measure o Plausible rival hyp:  We are sceptical about the internal validity of the studys causal relationship  External validity is the generalizability  Reliability: o Alternate form:  Degree of relatedness of different forms from same test o Internal consistency reliability:  Overall degree of relatedness of all items in a testg or all rater in a judgement study aka reliability of components o Item to item:  Any single item on average o Test retest :  Degree of temporal stability if a measuring intrsument or test which it is designed to evaluate from one administration to another  Validity: o Contruct Validity:  Degree to which conceptualization of what is being measured ir experimentally manipulated is what is claimes  Such as the contrsucts that are measure by psych tests or that serve a link b.w i.v. and d.v. o Content validity:  Adequate sampling of the relvant material or content that a test purports to measure o Convergent and discriminant:  Convergent:Grounds established for a contruct based on the convergence of related test or behaviour  Discriminat: distinctiveness of unrelated tests or behaviour o Criterion validity:  Degree to which test is correlated with outcome criteria in the present (its concurrent validty) or the future (predictive validity) o External validity:  Generalizablity o Face validty:  Degree to which it looks as if its measuring something relevant o Internal:  Soundness of statements of causal relationship aka plausible o Statistical conclusion:  Accuracy of estimation of the magnitude of the relationship b.w the i.v. and d.v. Which tests effect size  Reliability : o Second important criterion o Implies consistency or stability o Dependability o External validty can bridge the two( r and v)ie generalizability and causal reltionships’replication o Internal consistency-how well the subject results fair together o As well as judge-judge reliability  Random and systematic errors o Random error:  Chance fluctuations / haphazard errors o Systematic error:  Slanted in a particular way ie bias  Greater the random fluctauation, the less consistent or dependable/reliable the raw scores are  Suppose the measuring instrument is off by a known percentage  May occur quite innocently  o Random errors aren’t confined to psych ie calibration of tools o Random errors are likely to cancel out e.o. while systematic errors do not  Retest and alternatre form reliability o Test retest  Estimation of fluctuation  Pearson r measure the strength of association/relatedness of 2 vars  0=no correlation. -=negative corr; + =positive  Temporal stability/dependability  As it goes higher; more dependable it is  Retest reliability depends on on
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