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Chapter 14

# PSYC 2030 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Central Tendency, Statistical Parameter, Categorical Variable

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2030
Professor
Ronald Sheese
Chapter
14

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STATISTICS: ORGANIZING THE DATA
!
LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT
Experimentation generates a large amount of raw data that
researchers must ﬁnd a way to summarize and analyse
The manner in which the data are presented depends in part on
the type of variable used in the study
There are two major classes of variables used in research:
categorical and measures
Operational deﬁnitions imply certain ways of measure the
variables
The way you analyze variables depends on the variables you are
using
• Categorical: measuring variables based on categories you put it
in rather than numbers
•Nominal: taken variable and give it names, the names do not
have quantities associated with them ie. Male/female
Measure variable…quantitative
Ordinal- arranged in terms of order and magnitude, do not
say anything about the measures in between ie. 1st , 2nd,
3rd
Interval- they are in order but we say something about the
measures in between, idea is that the difference between 1
and 2 is the same as between 5 and 6, however not always
true, capture info about distance between observations as
well as order, does not have a true zero however , no
nothing point. (agree vs. disagree, no 0) ie. IQ scale
Ratio-! do have a true zero , ie. If you are going 30 km and
someone is going 60km, you can say they are going twice
your distance, can make comparisons of proportions
Cannot change level of measurement after you collect data from
simpler to more complex measurement, if you collect categorical
data you cannot change it to ratio, however you can change ratio
data to ordinal, can only move from more complex scale to
simpler