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PSYC 2110 (131)
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CH 9.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2110
Professor
Heather Jenkin
Semester
Winter

Description
CH 9: INFORMATION-PROCESSING PERSPECTIVE (there are many different theories associated w. the I.P.P. (discussed below) - How is the human mind similar to a computer: o Both have a limited capacity to process info (limited hard/software) -Hardware: the brain, neural cnxtion’s and sensory receptors -Software: mental programs that allow info to be stored, retrieved and analyzed o As ones hardware improves, it leads to their software improving and they can perform cognitive tasks w. increase speed/accuracy THE MULTISTORE MODEL - Model is used to understand how ppl think; components of the model follow: - Sensory store: holds raw sensory input as an afterimage of what you sensed (separate registers for each of your senses) and they can hold a lot of info, for a short period of time – things can disappear w.out being processed -Short-term store (STS): when you attend to info you can store 5-9 pieces of it for several seconds (if its not rehearsed, it is lost) –STS aka = working mem - Long-term store (LTS): permanent storehouse of info – includes your k.l on the world, past experiences/events and strategies you developed for processing info o Ppl are active w. their memory: they decide what they’ll attend to & how they process it - known as control processes/executive fn’s E.F -Metacognition: k.l of ones cognitive abilities and processes related to thinking (similar idea to executive functions) DEVELOPMENT OF THE MULTISTORE MODEL Dev Difference in Hardware: Information-Processing Capacity -Memory span: # of rapidly presented and unrelated items that a person can recall in exact order (memory span test are used to measure ones STS) o The amount of things someone can keep in mind increases w. age, but children that are an expert in a field can rapidly process info in that field (at a quicker rate than adults) -The age related differences that are associated w. memory span are due maturation – myelination and pruning could be the cause -Span of apprehension: # of items ppl can keep in their mind at one time Dev Difference in Software: Strategies and What Children Know Abt Thinking -Strategies: subset of E.F.: goal directed operations 4 aiding task performance o Most strategies children used are taught in school; difference in children’s strategies can lead to age-different cognitive capacities - Studies have shown that children who are trained to use new strategies and benefit from its use; children display production deficiencies (even if they are capable of putting effective strategies to use, they fail to produce these) -Utilization deficiency: even when children are trained on a new strategy they fail to benefit immediately from its use (reasons for this are below): o (1) They use all their mental effort for execution that they have few cognitive resources left for storing info relevant to the task o (2) Many child just use the new strategy to try something new o (3) May not be aware that they are failing to benefit from it Adaptive strategy choice model: describes children’s multiple strategy use and how strategies change over time – children have many strategies they can use and they compete to “win”; old strategies never die, but they just wait until the new strategies cannot be used to produce a correct answer o Shows that strategies don’t develop as stagelike, but rather as overlapping waves (figure 8.4 on page 306) Implicit cognition: unconscious thought i.e. knowing how to speak a lang w.out knowing all the rules to the lang Explicit cognition: conscious thinking (much of the richness of ones cognition comes from this type) Younger children think that they have greater control over their thoughts then they actually do (the mind will think about things even if you have no interest in thinking about that topic) Most infant/young children's k.l is implicit (so think learning develops early in life) O There are few age difference found of test of implicit memory, but there are a lot of age differences w. explicit learning Fuzzy-trace theory: important dev differences in how children represent info to solve problems – ppl encode experiences on a continuum from literal (verbatim) traces to fuzzy [preserve the content w.out much detail] (gistlike) traces o Fuzzy traces are accessed easier and need less effort to use; verbatim traces are also more susceptible to forgetting than fuzzy traces o Ex: comparing the prices of 2 shirts at different stores – exact price (verbatim) is forgotten, but your still able to remember which store had the cheaper price (fuzzy) Children are biased to encoding verbatim traces; adults prefer fuzzy – young children may process things slower, bc they focus on unnecessary verbatim detail that consume most of their cognitive resources Development of Attn Young children have short attn spans – cannot sustain attn for very long; children are not able to inhibit the intrusion of task irrelevant thoughts o Maturation of the reticular formation leads to increased sustain attn Young children also have little ability to display selective attn (ability to concentrate only on task-relevant stimuli not be distracted by noise in the environment) – older kids are better at concentrating on relevant info and filter out extraneous input Older children are also better at inhibiting certain processes – young children have a difficult time executing anything other than their preferred response (recall Piaget’s A-not-B test); inhibitions of certain responses develop more when the frontal lobe matures o Children have more “cognitive clutter” since they cant inhibit certain thoughts and leads them to processing things slower Although preschoolers have some ideas about distractions, they do not know what is involved in selective attention DEVELOPMENT OF MEMORY: RETAINING AND RETRIEVING INFO Event memory: includes your autobiographical mem (things that have happened to you and don’t require strategy to retain) Strategic mem: we consciously try and retain info; requires mnemonics (memory strategies) Event Memory Is considered general mem; autobio mem is mem for our personal experience Deferred imitation is the first evidence of event mem Infantile amnesia: inability to remember things that happen to us in our 3 years of life Young children organize routines into s
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