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Chapter 7

Chapter 7.docx

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PSYC 2110
Jean Varghese

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PSYC 2110 Chapter7 March 10, 2014 Early controversies about Sensory and Perceptual Development Enrichments Vs. Differentiation Is the coherent reality that we experience through the senses simply “out there” to be detected? or do we construct our own interpretations of that reality based on our experiences? - There is an objective reality of there to which we respondEnrichment Theory- claims that the sensory stimulation is often fragmented or confusing- we would have to use cognitive schemes  Cognition enriches sensory experience- our knowledge helps us construct meaning from the sensory stimulation we receive Differentiation Theory sensory stimulation provides all that we need to interpret our experiences our task is to simply detect the differentiating information, or Distinctive features that enable us to discriminate one form of experience from another Research Methods Used to Study the Infant’s Sensory and Perceptual Experiences The Preference Method two stimuli are presented simultaneously to see whether infants will attend more to one of them than the other(s). - the subject (in this case a baby) would be place in a looking chamber - the subject is then given two stimuli simultaneously and is observed by an individual recording the amount of time the baby looks at one stimulus than the other. if the infant looked at one stimuli more than the other one that this would be clear indication of discrimination and patterns Limitation: if the infant shows no preferences for wither stimuli- this does not tell whether the infant fails to discriminate between the two stimuli or if the baby is equally interested in both stimuli The Habituation Method This is the process in which a repeated stimulus becomes so familiar that responses initially associated with it no longer occur it is simple form of learning - this tells researchers that this sort of behavior means that this particular stimulus is something that the infants has experienced before ”familiarization-novelty” Dishabituation only occurs when the infant is discriminating one stimulus from another looking closly and paying a lot of interest in this stimulus than in the other stimulus  if babies fail to react to both stimulus is simply means that the differences between the two stimuli were too subtle for the baby to recognize **Habituation is a method that is very useful for assessing their sensory and perceptual capabilities Infants display a preference when they are familiar with- but not too familiar with the stimulus Evoked Potentials Method - presenting infants with a stimulus and record their brain waves stimuli that are not detected will produce no changes in the brain’s electrical activity The High Amplitude Sucking Method - Shows us what they can sense and to give us an idea of their likes and dislikes - Provides infants to some extent exert some control of the sensory environment this procedure can also be modified to tell us which of the two stimuli is preferred Infant Sensory Capabilities Hearing Soft sounds that adults can hear must be made noticeably louder for Infants to detect them  Researchers believe that this could be partially due to fluid that have seeped into the innder ear during the birthing processHabituation studies indicate that neonates are capable of discriminating sounds that differ in loudness, duration, direction and frequency PSYC 2110 Chapter7 March 10, 2014 Reaction to voices Young infants are particularly attentive to voices, especially high-pitched feminine voices - Newborns also suck faster on a nip to hear a recording of their mother’s voice than a recording of some other chick rd - Fetuses in their 3 trimester experience changes in their heart rate when responding to information provided by mothers **Adults interacted with children and provided combinations of facial expressions and or vocal information to indicate either a happy of sad state infants looked more when vocal expressions were available Reactions to Language Only attend closely to voices by also are able to discriminate basic speech sounds, phonemes very early in life - During the time that babies are able to differentiate between basic colours they would also be able to respond to basic sound units the more often babies hear their names they become more respondent to it. They will reliably turn their heads to hear their own name but not the names of other people U-shape curve of Auditory Response Infants are presented sounds, and observed for any interest - Infants are interested for a certain amount of time until they eventually stop responding - At a later time that start responding again to the earlier stimulus • Newborns are able to discriminate between different voices to identify from their companions to strangers and also separating speech into smaller units Taste and Smell - Infants apparently come equipped with something of a sweet tooth they would suck faster and elicit and strong response for sweeter liquids than for liquids that are less sweet - They are also able to elicit different responses towards different tastes of liquids (bitter, sour, sweeter) producing different facial responses this suggests that newborns can discriminate different concentration of a particular taste They are also capable of detecting a variety of odours they react vigorously to unpleasant smells by displaying facial expressions or turning away from the smell **olfactory signature- a characteristic odour that babies can use as an early means of identifying their closest companions Touch, Temperature and Pain - Sensitivity to touch clearly enhances infants’ responsiveness to their environments touch and close contact promote developmental process in all infants not just premature babies Lowers stress levels and promotes neural activity The gentle stroking and massaging arouses inattentive infants and calms agitated ones this in turn allows the infants to become more involved with their companions - Also sensitive to warmth, cold and changes in temperature - Very sensitive to pain Ex. Male babies during circumcision they emit high pitched wails, also plasma cortisol is significantly highly just after the surgery than before it Vision - The least mature of the newborn’s sensory capabilities changes in brightness will elicit a subcortical pupillary reflex this indicates that the neonate is sensitive to light - Newborn infants are more likely to track faces than other patterns this preferences for faces however eventually disappears within 1 to 2 months (habituation)  Researcher have conducted a test where they displayed three images, one of a cutout of a human face, and the other two... that look stupid Loll in the end the baby was able to follow (with eyes and head) the image of the human face) PSYC 2110 Chapter7 March 10, 2014 - This demonstrates that infants are able to track a visual stimulus while also showing the preference of a human face It represents an adaptive remnant of our evolutionary history promoting social interaction Visual Acuity Sense Newborn’s Capabilities Vision Least well-developed sense; accommodation and visual acuity are limited; sensitive to brightness; can discriminate some colours and moving targets Hearin Turns in direction of sounds; less sensitivities to g soft sounds than an adult would be- can discriminate sounds that differ in such dimensions as loudness, direction and frequency; particularly responsive to speech and recognizes mother voice Taste Prefers sweet solutions; can discriminate sweet salty sour and bitter tastes Smell Detects a variety of odours; turns away from unpleasant ones; if breast fed, can identify mother by the odour of her breasts and underarm area Touch Responsive to touch, temperature change and pain Objects at any distance look rather blurry to a very young infant they would have trouble accommodating (changing the shapes of the lens of the eye to bring visual focus to the object) - Visual functions that are evident in newborns are largely experience independent mechanisms these mechanisms do not need any stimuli to function normally. Whereas experience dependent mechanisms do require external stimuli to function correctly Visual Perception in Infancy Early Pattern perception - Young infants prefer to look at highly contrasted patterns with many sharp boundaries between light and dark areas recall the Baby looking chamber experiment - Babies less tha
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