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Chapter 10

PSYC 2110 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Mental Chronometry, Mental Rotation, Cognitive Revolution

Course Code
PSYC 2110

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Chapter 10 notes
Visual imagery: seeing in the absence of a visual stimulus
Mental imagery: the ability to recreate the sensory world in the absence of physical stimuli
Imageless thought debate:thoughts are impossible without an image (Aristotle)
-Galton people who had difficulty forming visual images were still able to think
-during cognitive revolution, paivio showed that it was easier to remember concrete nouns like
truck or tree (that can be imagined) than abstract nouns liked truth or justice
Paired associate learning: subjects presented with pairs of words like boat-hat, during study
period, then presented with the first word of the pair and told to recall the second word
Paivio found better memory for word pairs of concrete nouns concedptual peg hypothesis:
concrete nouns create images that other words can hang onto
Mental chronometry (Shepard and Metzler): determining the amount of time needed to carry out
various cognitive processes
-Shepard and Metzler’s mental rotation tasks showed that imagery and perception may share
the same emchanisms
-the idea that there is a spatial correspondence between imagery and perception is supported
by mental scanning experiments:where subjects create mental images and then scan them in
their minds
Imagery debate:a debate about whether imagery is based on spatial mechanisms , like those in
perception, or mechanisms related to language called propositional mechanisms
Spatial representation: a representation in which different parts of an image can be described as
corresponding to specific locations in space
Propositional representation: relationships can be represented by abstract symbols such as an
equation or a statement
Depictive representations:representations that are like realistic pictures of an object so that
parts of the representation correspond to parts of the object
Tacit knowledge explanation:subjects unconsciously use knowledge about the world in making
-“flashed dot experiment” argued against tacit knowledge, they showed parallels between
imagery and perception with the size in visual field experiments, farah’s H and T experiment
Imagery neurons: neurons that fire the same when a person sees and imagines a baseball
-parallels between perception and imagery demonstrated physiologically by recording single
neurons (imagery neurons) , brain imaging that showed overlapping activation in the brain TMS
experiments that compared the effect of brain inactivation on perception and imagery, and
neurophysiological case studies that showed that removal of the visual cortex affects image
size;unilateral neglect
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