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PSYC 2110 (131)
Gillian Wu (18)

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PSYC 2110
Gillian Wu

Ch 2: Theories of Human Devp THE NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC THEORIES  Theory: set of concepts used to describe, organize and explain a set of observations; good theories need 3 things: o Parsimonious: theories that provide detail in the lowest amount of principals possible o Fasifiable: the theory can generate predications that could be disconfirmed o Heuristic: stimulates new research and discoveries PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWPOINT FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY  Relied on hypnosis, dream analysis and free association to uncover unconscious motives which have been repressed o The way parents manage their childrens sexual and aggressive urges (instincts) plays a large role in shaping the childs personality  Id – only personality component that’s present at birth; only function is to satisfy urges (like how babies cry until they get what they need)  Ego – rational part of personality; reflects a child wanting to learn, reason and remember; used to find realistic means to satisfy urges  Superego – seat of conscience; used to allow children to realize when they did something bad and feel guilty for it; makes sure the ego finds sociable outcomes for the ids desires (in the middle of the id and ego)  Freuds theory deserves credit for his contribution to the unconscious motivations (most ppl only study the conscious), and also for his role on early experiences influencing later devp STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVP  Fixate: to retain certain aspects of a stage throughout life (happens when an activity was either encouraged or discouraged from parents o Ex: child punished for thumbsucking may substitute that later in life with oral sex or smoking  Stages include: oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital o Oral: feedings: weaned off too early can lead to being over dependent of a spouse o Anal: children punished for toileting accidents may become messy later in life o Phallic: genital stimulation; Oedipus / electra complex – leads children to internalize their sex role characterisitics o Latency: developing of problem solving abilities and internalizes social values (no urges here) o Genital: sexual urges that adolescences need too learn to be expressed socially - healthy devp leads to satified marriage and children Eriksons psychosocial theory  Erikson stressed children are active and curious about their environments, not slaves to sexual urges  Puts more emphasis on cultural influence  Psychosocial stages (8) – the conflicts are caused by both ones biological maturation and their social demands o Basic trust vs mistrust: must learn to trust their caregivers (can lead them to thinking the world is a dangerous place if caregivers reject or create a mistrustful environment) ] o Autonomy vs shame/doubt: children must learn independence with things like dressing and feeding themselves; can lead to them doubting their abilites if this doesn’t happen o Initative vs guilt: children try to take on things that are beyond their capability; they need to have a sense that initiative is good and to not feel guilty if something is not done right o Industry vs inferiority: learn to master social/academic skills – if they feel they are industrious, they be self-assured and if not they will feel inferior o Identity vs role confusion: the question who am I is grappled – try to figure out the role they will have as adults o Intimacy vs isolation: form strong friendships with others o Generativity vs stagnation: adults face being productive at work and raising families – those unwilling to accept their responsibility become self-centred o Ego integrity vs despair: older ppl view life as happy or a disappointment  Many ppl agree more with erikson than freud, since they can remember or are dealing with one of the stages during the current time (he addresses rational issues)  The theory does not provide causes to devp (key criticism): more descriptive than explanation Other psychoanalysts  Theories differ in their in focus but all have some influence from social aspects and less on sex (unlike freud) LEARNING VIEWPOINT (nurture is everything in this case)  Behaviourism (Watson): devp should be based on overt behaviour changes rather than the unconscious – habits are the building blocks to devp  Little albert eventually become distressed of all things furry after a clang was presented with a furry white rat: Watson stresses that start training their children by birth  Operant conditioning (Skinner): people repeat things that reward them and suppress acts that punish them o Reinforcer: strengthens the response and makes it more probable in the future by providing reward o Punisher: consequences that will suppress a response  Over devp depends on external stimuli rather than internal forces (skinner ignores cognitive thoughts to social learning)  Cognitive Social Learning Theory (Bandura): unlike animals, we think about our behaviours and consequences, so Skinner is not fully correct – so we are more effected by what we THINK will happen than what is actually experienced o Observational learning is central to him – learning by watching others: must attend to behaviour, encode it, store in memory, and then imitate it  This leads children to learning both desirable and undesirable behaviors quickly  Watsons environmental determinism: theories that thought of children as passive members of environmental influence; they would simply become whatever their parents, teachers and other social agents groomed them to be o Bandura didn’t agree with this: he determined that children must attend to things and use cognitive processes in order to obtain new information – so children are active, thinking beings who have a say in how they develop  Reciprocal determinism: Banduras concept that devp requires: P (an active person), B (persons behaviour) and E (the environment) o All 3 factors can influence each other (bidirectional) – so a child can influence his environment i.e. a child (P) that bullies (B) other children and he creates a favourable outcome for himself (E); the child in this case has influenced the environment  +ves of learning theory: its is testable and precise (behaviour modification is a quick and easy way to change someone’s behaviour now)  -ves: theories don’t take into account ones biological influence on their behaviour; they also don’t devote enough attn. to cognitive influences to devp COGNITIVE-DEVPAL VIEWPOINT  Piaget: which measuring ppl’s ability to when they wrote an IQ test, he was interested in children’s incorrect answers more than their correct ones – determine that children of younger ages are not less intelligent than those who are older, instead they just have different thought processes  Piaget defined intelligence as basic life processes that helps an organism adapt to its environment – children adapting simply means that they are able to use their cognitive structure in aiding with the environment  Cognitive structure – scheme is an organized pattern of thoughts or actions used to cope or explain some aspects of experience – different schemes happen at different ages (which is why children of different ages interpret things differently) o Earliest schemes that children devp are their motor habits – rocking, grasping, lifting; schemes than can become “actions of the head” which are when they are able to start thinking logically and perform tasks like mental math  Assimilation: when children take what they have learned (their cognitive structures) and interpret new experiences with their schemes i.e. thinking the trees are alive  Disequilibrium: contradictions b/w child’s understanding and facts; this causes the child’s schemes to be revised and they will accommodate (altering schemes to provide better explanations) o People constantly use assimilation and accommodation to adapt – we first solve problems using our schemes, but when they are inad
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