Textbook Notes (363,507)
Canada (158,391)
York University (12,360)
Psychology (3,544)
PSYC 2110 (131)
Gillian Wu (18)

CH 7.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
PSYC 2110
Gillian Wu

CH 7: SENSATION, PERCEPTION (S&P) AND LEARNING  Sensation: process which sensory neurons detect info and transmit them to the brain  Perception: interpretation of sensory input – to recognize, understand and know what you sensing o The question is, do infants perceive the world, or do they just sense it  Learning: process in which behavior changes bc of experience EARLY CONTROVERSIES ABOUT S&P DEV  Empiricist: ppl that believe an infant is tabula rasa – so they only learn to interpret sensation but there senses are already integrated at birth (James) o So dev is based on nurture  Nativist: ppl that believe perceptual ability is innate - built from evolution (Descartes and Kant) o Dev is based on nature  Enrichment theory: there is an objective reality to which we will respond, but sensory stimulation is often fragmented or confusing – in order to interpret the stimulation, we use our cognitive scheme to enrich our experience  Differentiation theory: sensory stimulation provides everything we need to interpret our experiences – our task is to detect distinctive features so we can discriminate one form of experience from another o When children’s perceptual capabilities blossom, they are able to start detecting more features to understand different stimulation RESEARCH METHODS USED TO STUDY THE INFANTS S&P EXPERIENCE  Preference method: child lies in a looking chamber while different visual patterns are presented to them above – if the child looked at one pattern more than another, its assumed that they show a preference o Determined that the ability to detect and discriminate patterns is innate o Problem was that if the child showed no preference was it bc they couldn’t discriminate or did they equally like both of them  Habituation method: most popular way to measure S&P in infants – infant is shown one stimulate until they habituate to it, then the 2 stimulus is presented (if they discriminate it from the first, then they will dishabituate – determined by them attending closely to the stimuli while having changes in heart rate) o If they fail to react, then it shows the differences is too subtle for them to react o Can be use on sight, taste, odors, sounds and touch o Problem w/ this is that when infants are too familiar w/ something they are ready to move on from it so spend less time looking at it; they stimuli should be familiar (but not too familiar w/ the stimulus)  Evoked potentials method: use brain waves to see if they can discriminate – different sights/sounds will produce different brain activity  High-amplitude sucking method: baby creates a baseline sucking rate, and if it increases when different stimuli are presented it determines that they can discriminate INFANT SENSORY CAPABILITES Hearing  Soft sounds adults hear need to be louder for a baby; although they can discriminate different sounds (loudness, direction, frequency and duration)  They are specifically attentive to high-pitched feminine voices – able to detect their moms voice to any other, perhaps bc they heard this most often when in the womb o As a fetus, if a passage is read by their mother or a stranger, the heart rate differed (learn sound patterns before birth)  Infants cannot detect emotion states from sounds – they rely on facial expression for this  Are able to discriminate basic speech sounds (phonemes)  Babies at around 4 ½ can recognize words they hear often (even if they don’t understand what it means just yet) Taste and Smell  Newborns can discriminate taste as sweet, bitter, salty or neutral; preference for sweet  Facial expressions will change if given different tastes  Newborns can also detect difference in odor – only after four days of birth, they already prefer the smell of milk to amniotic fluid  Newborns by 1 week can detect a difference in the smell of their mother to others (known as the olfactory signature) Touch, Temperature and Pain  Touch and close contact enhance dev in infants – lowers stress, calms and promotes neural activity  Infants at later ages also use touch to explore the environment – first w/ their mouths then later with their hands  Sensitive to warmth, cold and change in temp  Infants also respond to pain more as a newborn than when their older  Males that are circumcised normally emit high-pitched wails, similar to premature or babies that have brain damage VISION  Least mature sense of a newborns capability  The first 1-2 months, babies have a preference to track faces rather than objects (which eventually disappears)  Neonates can also see in colour, but have trouble discriminating blue, green and yellow from white (this improves rapidly – by 4 months they are able to group the same colour of different shading in the same group)  A neonates acuity is 20/600  Neonates also have trouble accommodating – changing the shape of their lens to bring things to focus (so they require more visual contrast to see things as clear as adults) o By 6 months acuity is 20/100 and by one year its average  Stimuli should not be to finely detailed and include a lot of dark and light contrast for a neonate to see them  Vision is based on experience-independent (how much they use vision) and also experience-dependent (synaptic reinforcement) mechanisms VISUAL PERCEPTION IN INFANCY Perception of pattern and form  Neonates prefer looking at things that have high contrast (with sharp boundaries separating light and dark), curvi-linear features, and moderately complex patterns o When they see something highly complex, they would probably just see a dark blob bc they cant accommodate yet  For infants to discriminate an object from the background, they rely on kinetic motion cues (something that is in the same view as the environment and isn’t moving will be thought to be part of the background) o Object movement is something that develops by 2 months – infants aren’t born with it  By one year, infants prefer looking at actual objects w/ different shapes (novel shapes) – find familiar things less interesting by this age  We are not able to fully process and discriminate critical info on faces until around mid-teen years Perception of 3-D space  Infants younger than 2-3 months do not experience stereopsis (creation of depth in an image) o This can be a reason for their difficulty of locating objects in space  Nativists argue that several cues for depth and distance are monocular so infants can see a little i.e. mother moving towards and away from them  Artist use pictorial cues (monocular illusions on 2-D to appear 3-D) – different ways of doing this o Linear perspective – making linear objects converge as they reach a horizon o Texture gradients – giving more detail to objects that are nearby o Sizing cues – drawing distant objects bigger than further ones o Interposition – making a near figure obstruct the view of a further one o Shading – varying the light of an objects surface to create depth  If infants detect these, then they can see 3-D from the start  Here are 3 programs of research to determine when infants perceive depth and can make inferences about size and spatial relations Size constancy  Visual looming: effect where infants blink more when something is
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2110

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.