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PSYC 2120 (203)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Notes.docx

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York University
PSYC 2120
Ward Struthers

Chapter 10 Notes Group 2 or more persons who are interacting with on another andor influencing one another Individual performance and behaviour in group settingsSocial Facilitation The effects of an audience o Social facilitationThe effects of the presence of other people on individual performance which will usually be improved performance on simple tasks and impaired performance on complex tasks o Dominant ResponseThe action that is most likely to occur in a situation or on a task when the individual is aloneWhen task is simple or something that people have done many times then the dominant response will be the corret ones or well practised ones y Complex or novel then the dominant responses are more likely to be incorrect ones o Presence of other people is physiologically arousing perhaps because the individual is anxious about performing well in front of others Physiological arousal restricts individuals range of attention people can focus only on a few cues in the settingThis narrowed focus of attention actually improves performance because it blocks out distractions but when a task is complex the narrowed focus of attention makes it difficult for the individual to attend to all of the cues necessary for good performanceSocial Loafing Goofing off when others can do the work o Social Loafing the reduction of effort that people often exhibit when working in a group where individual contributions are unidentifiable o The larger the group the less effort individuals tend to exert on joint tasks o Individual anonymityIf people believe that their own performance within the group will be identifiable social loafing disappearso People are less likely to loaf when the group is important or meaningful to them o Another factor that influences social loafing is the cohesiveness or attractiveness of the group itselfWhen group is composed of friends or people who are attractive for other reasons an individuals motivation is increased and social loafing declines o Gender and cultural differences in social loafingMen more likely than women to loaf
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