Textbook Notes (362,735)
Canada (158,032)
York University (12,350)
Psychology (3,541)
PSYC 2130 (181)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
PSYC 2130
Krista Phillips

Chapter 12: I. Interpreting Freud  Modern writers who work to make sense of Freud may shade their summaries in various ways that try to maintain the spirit, if not the letter, of Freudian law  Peter Gay’s (1988) monumental biography of Freud includes a thorough and insightful survey of the development of Freud’s theory and a firm defense of it  Charles Brenner’s (1974) useful outline of psychoanalytic concepts merges Freud’s ideas with Brenner’s own insights and updates II. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists  Neo-Freudian psychology o Anna Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Erik Erikson, Karen Horney, Bruno Bettelheim, Harry Stack Sullivan, Melanie Klein, D. W. Winnicott, Henry Murray, and John Bowlby  Most neo-Freudians used the same research methods as Freud himself  This approach allows psychoanalysts of every stripe to cover a lot of theoretical ground  It also invokes a style of argument that more conventionally scientific psychologists find frustrating a. Common Themes of Neo-Freudian Thought  Most neo-Freudians differ from Freud in 3 major respects  1 , they view sex as less important than Freud did nd o Reinterpret libido as a general motivation toward life and creativity  2 , less emphasis on unconscious mental processes and more emphasis on conscious thought o Modern ego psychologists focus on the processes of driving the perception and conscious comprehension of reality o Ego psychology focus on perception, memory, learning, and rational, conscious thinking o Jane Loevinger’s influential version, the ego’s function is to make sense of everything a person experiences  3 , less emphasis on instinctual drives and mental life as the source of psychological difficulties, and focuses instead on interpersonal relationships  Adler and Erikson both emphasized the way psychological problems arise from day-to-day difficulties relating with other people and with society  Object relations theorists believe that people replay certain key patterns in their relationships throughout their lives b. Inferiority and Compensation: Adler (1870-1937)  First major disciple of Freud to end up at odds with the master  Thought that Freud focused too much on sex as the ultimate motivator and organizer of thought and behaviour  Social interest desire to relate positively and productively with other people  Organ inferiority implies that someone who felt physically weak as a child will strive for physical strength as an adult, will grow into an adult obsessed with being smart than everyone else, and so on o How the child felt  A particular kind of compensation for the past is seen in the desire of an adult to act and become powerful, because of feeling inadequate or inferior as a child masculine protest  Applied to both men and women, but believed the issue to be particularly acute for men  Larger point is that everyone felt inferior as a child, probably in many respects and the quest to overcome these feelings can influence adult behaviour  Needs for power, love and achievement all have roots in early experience 1  Inferiority complex and lifestyle c. The Collective Unconscious, Persona, and Personality: Jung (1875-1961)  Collective unconscious as result of history of the human species, all people share inborn “racial” memories and ideas, most of which reside in the unconscious  Archetypes basic images of how people think about the world, both consciously and unconsciously  Persona social mask one wears in public dealings o Everyone’s persona is false, since everyone keeps some aspects of their real selves private, or at least fails to advertise all aspects of the self equally o This idea survives in modern social psychology and sociology o Influenced object relations theory o Danger an individual might come to identify more with the persona than with the real self  Anima is the idea, or prototype, of the female, as held in the mind of a male  Animus idealized image of the male as held in the mind of a female o These 2 images cause everyone to have some aspects of the opposite sex in their psychological makeup  Distinction between people who are psychologically turned inward (introverts) and those who are oriented toward the external world and other people (extraverts)  Classification of 4 basic ways of thinking: rational thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuiting o Everybody uses it but it varies in which kind predominates o Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) sometimes used to determine which kind of thinking an individual uses most  Freud emphasized on rational thinking, whereas Jung had a more intuitive style d. Feminine Psychology and Basic Anxiety: Horney (1885-1952)  One of the 3 most influential women in the history of psychoanalysis o Anna and Melanie Klein  Wrote about self-analysis she thought it could help people through psychological difficulties when professional psychoanalysis was impractical or unavailable  Disagreed with Freud’s portrayal of women as obsessed by “penis envy” and the desire to be male  Emphasized that adult behaviour is often based on efforts to overcome the basic anxiety acquired in childhood: the fear of being alone and helpless in a hostile world  Neurotic needs needs that people feel but that are neither realistic nor truly desirable o Needs to find a life partner who will solve all of one’s problems, to be loved by everybody, to dominate everybody, to be independent of everybody e. Psychosocial Development: Erikson (1902-1994)  His innovations in psychoanalytic theory make him Freud’s most important revisionist  He pointed out that not all conflicts take place in the unconscious mind- many conflicts are conscious  Believed that certain basic conflicts arise at various stages of his life  Developed his own version of Freud’s theory of psychological development, in which he emphasized not the physical focus of libido, but the conflicts experienced at each stage of their possible outcomes  Psychosocial approach: o Basic trust vs. mistrust 0-2yrs (oral stage)  Given the appropriate ratio of satisfaction and temporary frustration, the child develops hope and confidence that basic needs will be met o Autonomy vs. shame and doubt 3-4yrs (anal stage) 2  Adults pressure the child to obey, but on the other hand, that child wants control of his own life  These wills can strike a balance, but either may win out, leading in some cases to the anal character o Initiative vs. guilt 4-7yrs (phallic stage)  Child begins to fantasize about life as an adult  If adults do not respond to them well, these thoughts can lead the child to feel guilty and to back off from taking initiative in their development toward adulthood  Child will develop a sense of right and wrong that is derived from adult teachings but is also true to the child’s developing sense of self  Leads to a principled adult morality o Industry vs. inferiority 8-12yrs (latency stage)  One should develop the skills and attitudes to succeed in the world of work or otherwise contribute to society  Child must begin to control his exuberant imagination and unfocused energy and get on with tasks of developing competence, workmanship, and a way of organizing life tasks o Identity vs. identity confusion 13yrs+ (genital stage)  As the adolescent strives to figure out who he is and what is and is not important  Individuals choose values and goals that are consistent, personally meaningful, and useful o Intimacy vs. isolation  For young adulthood to find an intimate life partner to share important experiences and further development, rather than becoming isolated and lonely o Generativity vs. stagnation  Middle age  avoid the temptation to settle into passive comfort but instead begin to turn her concerns to the next generation o Integrity vs. despair  Late in old age, as one begins to face the prospect of death  A person progresses from one crisis to another according to the developmental tasks that different phases of life require because of the structure of society st  The insight about the societal basis of psychological development was the 1 of the 2 major contributions of Erikson’s theory of development  2 major contribution was his pioneering venture into what is now called life span development o Psychological growth is not limited to little children o An ongoing task and opportunity throughout life from childhood through old age o Modern psychology is heavily influenced by this idea f. Object Relations Theory: Klein and Winnicott  Objects psychoanalytic term for emotionally important people  Object relations theory the analysis of interpersonal relationships  We can only relate to other people via the images of them we hold in our minds, and these images do not always match reality  The most active area of psychoanalytic thinking at present and has generated a huge literature  Core ideas go back to Freud, who thought the superego was built from childhood identification with important people, and who also thought that people repeat important psychological patterns in new relationships through the mechanism of transference 3  Address problems of interpersonal relations  4 principle themes: o Every relationship has elements of satisfaction and frustration, or pleasure and pain  Klein theorized that the first important object in the infant’s life is the mother’s breast  Infant discovers it as a source of great delight, providing nutrition, warmth and comfort (adores it)  At the same time, the breast can be frustrating- it is not always
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2130

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.