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Chapter 2

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PSYC 2130
Krista Phillips

Chapter Two Notes: • There are different phases in scientific inquiry o Discovery phase o Justification phase: a rationale for the plan of study  Other phases are not discussed in this chapter • Meta-analysis is a quantitative approach that is used to develop as overall picture and to explore for conditions (known as moderator variables) that may strengthen or weaken the relationship between dependent and independent variables • What are hypothesis generating heuristic? o Heuristic means stimulating interest as a means of furthering investigation o Paradoxical incident: a seemingly contradictory event o Analogical thinking: the use of analogies metaphors and figures of speech o Researcher develops insight by trying to account for conflicting results o Improving older ideas o Serendipity: felicitous or lucky discovery  i.e. infantile autism Defining Variable • Operation definition: identify a variable on the basis of empirical conditions (the operations) used to measure or to manipulate the variables • Theoretical definitions: define variables in more abstract or more general terms • Construct: is another name for a concept formulated to serve as a causal ro descriptive explanation o Construct validation refers to establishing the relation of a concept to variables with which it should, theoretically, be associated positively, negatively, or not at all Good Theories and Working Hypotheses: • Working hypotheses is frequently called experimental hypotheses in exper
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